Anti-obesity effects of Juniperus chinensis extract are associated with increased AMP-activated protein kinase expression and phosphorylation in the visceral adipose tissue of rats. (17/40)

This study evaluates the protective effect of Juniperus chinensis hot water extract (JCE) against high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and its molecular mechanisms in the visceral adipose tissue of rats. JCE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, blood lipid levels, and blood insulin and leptin levels of rats rendered obese by an HFD. Feeding with JCE significantly reversed the HFD-induced down-regulation of the epididymal adipose tissue genes implicated in adipogenesis, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma2 (PPARgamma2), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), as well as those involved in uncoupled respiration, such as the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3). Dietary supplementation with JCE also reversed the HFD-induced decreases in the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels and restored the HFD-induced inhibitions in the AMPK and ACC2 phosphorylation, which are related to fatty acid beta-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. This study reports, for the first time, that the JCE can have an anti-obesity effect in a rodent model with HFD-induced obesity through an enhanced gene transcription of the uncoupling protein as well as an elevated AMPK protein expression and phosphorylation in the visceral adipose tissue.  (+info)

Heritability of juniper consumption in goats. (18/40)


Redberry juniper as a roughage source in lamb feedlot rations: performance and serum nonesterified fatty acids, urea nitrogen, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. (19/40)


Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, India. (20/40)

Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium and longer ring-width chronologies of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), Himalayan pencil cedar (Cedrus deodara) and Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) have been developed from different sites in western Himalaya. Studies conducted so far on various conifer species indicate strong precipitation signatures in ring-width measurement series. The paucity of weather records from stations close to tree-ring sampling sites poses diffi culty in calibrating tree-ring data against climate data especially precipitation for its strong spatial variability in mountain regions. However, for the existence of strong coherence in temperature, even in data from distant stations, more robust temperature reconstructions representing regional and hemispheric signatures have been developed. Tree-ring records from the region indicate multi-century warm and cool anomalies consistent with the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age anomalies. Signifi cant relationships noted between mean premonsoon temperature over the western Himalaya and ENSO features endorse utility of climate records from western Himalayan region in understanding long-term climate variability and attribution of anthropogenic impact.  (+info)

Activity of essential oils against Bacillus subtilis spores. (21/40)

Alternative methods for controlling bacterial endospore contamination are desired in a range of industries and applications. Attention has recently turned to natural products, such as essential oils, which have sporicidal activity. In this study, a selection of essential oils was investigated to identify those with activity against Bacillus subtilis spores. Spores were exposed to thirteen essential oils, and surviving spores were enumerated. Cardamom, tea tree, and juniper leaf oils were the most effective, reducing the number of viable spores by 3 logs at concentrations above 1%. Sporicidal activity was enhanced at high temperatures (60 degrees C) or longer exposure times (up to one week). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified the components of the active essential oils. However, none of the major oil components exhibited equivalent activity to the whole oils. The fact that oil components, either alone or in combination, did not show the same level of sporicidal activity as the complete oils suggested that minor components may be involved, or that these act synergistically with major components. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine spores after exposure to essential oils and suggested that leakage of spore contents was the likely mode of sporicidal action. Our data have shown that essential oils exert sporicidal activity and may be useful in applications where bacterial spore reduction is desired.  (+info)

Targeted and non-targeted approaches for complex natural sample profiling by GCxGC-qMS. (22/40)

The present study examines the ability of targeted and non-targeted methods to provide specific and complementary information on groups of samples on the basis of their component distribution on the two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) plane. The volatile fraction of Arabica green and roasted coffee samples differing in geographical origins and roasting treatments and the volatile fraction from juniper needles, sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction, were analyzed by GCxGC-qMS and sample profiles processed by different approaches. In the target analysis profiling, samples submitted to different roasting cycles and/or differing in origin and post-harvest treatment are characterized on the basis of known constituents (botanical, technological, and/or aromatic markers). This approach provides highly reliable results on quali-quantitative compositional differences because of the authentic standard confirmation, extending and improving the specificity of the comparative procedure to trace and minor components. On the other hand, non-targeted data-processing methods (e.g., direct image comparison and template-based fingerprinting) include in the sample comparisons and correlations all detected sample components, offering an increased discrimination potential by identifying compounds that are comparatively significant but not known targets. Results demonstrate the ability of GCxGC to explore in depth the complexity of samples and emphasize the advantages of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to improve the level of information provided by GCxGC separation.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic differences in exposure to camphor after intraruminal dosing in selectively bred lines of goats. (23/40)


New phenylpropanoid glycosides from Juniperus communis var. depressa. (24/40)

Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides were isolated from the leaves and stems of Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae) along with 14 known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectral analyses, in particular by 2D-NMR spectral evidence.  (+info)