Knowledge and attitudes of criminal justice professionals in relation to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.
Results of a provincial survey of Judges and Crown Prosecutors to determine specifically, their attitudes, knowledge, behaviors and training needs related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. In general, the survey results suggest that while aware of some aspects of FASD, Judges and Prosecutors both desire and need more education and training to support them in their work with individuals with FASD who come into conflict with the law. The findings also suggest that access to accurate and timely assessment and diagnoses of FASD would be beneficial. Survey findings point to the need for specific action to improve the ability of Judges and Prosecutors to recognize and to work with people affected by FASD in the Criminal Justice System. The results further indicate the need for changes and improvements in several areas regarding legal policy issues, research, and professional education and practice. (+info)
Maltreated children's understanding of and emotional reactions to dependency court involvement.
Healthcare and the law: a view from the bar.
When a patient's care becomes the subject of medical-legal litigation, those from healthcare involved in the case may not understand the decisions of the lawyers and the final judgment of the judge. An appreciation of how legal professionals review healthcare decisions requires an understanding of the process that courts follow in analyzing medical cases and arriving at their own legal judgments. The concept of "medical evidence" can also be problematic. Since lawyers and judges are not medically trained, how lawyers present their evidence and how judges or juries review and understand that evidence can have an enormous impact on the outcome of litigation. This article outlines the types of evidence. When a medical event is reviewed in isolation in a non-medical setting - such as a courtroom - there are obvious problems with omission of the larger contextual background. In this paper, an actual legal case is reviewed, serving as an example of how such problems may be handled. There are factors other than those pertaining to the immediate medical case that have a role in shaping the medical judgment, including other ongoing events, changing medical standards and a reliance on outside resources. (+info)
Adaptive interventions may optimize outcomes in drug courts: a pilot study.
Adaptive interventions apply a priori decision rules for adjusting treatment services in response to participants' clinical presentation or performance in treatment. This pilot study (n = 30) experimentally examined an adaptive intervention in a misdemeanor drug court. The participants were primarily charged with possession of marijuana (73%) or possession of drug paraphernalia (23%). Results revealed that participants in the adaptive condition had higher graduation rates and required significantly less time to graduate from the program and achieve a final resolution of the case. It took an average of nearly 4 fewer months for participants in the adaptive intervention to resolve their cases compared with those participating in drug court as usual. Participants in the adaptive condition also reported equivalent satisfaction with the program and therapeutic alliances with their counselors. These data suggest that adaptive interventions may enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of drug courts and justify examining adaptive interventions in large-scale drug court studies. (+info)
Italian appeal court: a genetic predisposition to commit murder?
Setting the time and place for a hearing before an administrative law judge. Final rules.
We are amending our rules to state that our agency is responsible for setting the time and place for a hearing before an administrative law judge (ALJ). This change creates a 3-year pilot program that will allow us to test this new authority. Our use of this authority, consistent with due process rights of claimants, may provide us with greater flexibility in scheduling both in-person and video hearings, lead to improved efficiency in our hearing process, and reduce the number of pending hearing requests. This change is a part of our broader commitment to maintaining a hearing process that results in accurate, high-quality decisions for claimants. (+info)
Child support enforcement and fathers' contributions to their nonmarital children.
This study examines the total package of child support that mothers receive from the nonresident fathers of their children, by focusing on three components of total support: formal cash, informal cash, and in-kind support. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article considers how contributions change over time and the effects of child support enforcement on these contributions. Findings suggest that total cash support received drops precipitously over the first 15 months of living apart (as informal support drops off) and then increases slightly after 45 months (as the increase in formal support overtakes the decrease in informal support). While the study finds no effect of enforcement on total support received in the first 5 years after a nonmarital birth, the substantial differences in total cash support received by the length of time that parents have not been cohabiting suggest that strong enforcement may be efficacious over time. (+info)