Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case. (+info)
Sensory afferent properties of immobilised or inflamed rat knees during continuous passive movement.
We studied the sensory afferent properties of normal, immobilised and inflamed rat knees by recording the activity of the medial articular nerve (MAN). When the knee was inflamed by kaolin-carrageenan or immobilised for six weeks, MAN activity significantly increased during rest and continuous passive motion (CPM). The maximal discharge rate tended to increase depending on the angular velocity of the CPM. When the knees were then rested for one hour before again starting CPM, activity was further increased at the initial CPM cycle, the 'post-rest effect'. Analysis of the conduction velocity showed that 94% and 66% of spike units on the recorded discharge of the immobilised and inflamed knees, respectively, belonged to fine nerve fibres. Our findings show that the sensory receptors in the knee are sensitised in a similar manner by immobilisation and by inflammation, suggesting a relationship to pain. The post-rest effect may be related to a characteristic symptom of osteoarthritis called 'starting pain'. (+info)
Histology and tissue chemistry of tidemark separation in hamsters.
Adult articular cartilage is divided by the tidemark into a deep calcified layer and a more superficial uncalcified layer. Histologic examination of articular cartilage from the knee joint of golden Syrian hamsters 123 days of age or older revealed defects at the tidemark in the tibia. Defects ranged from small separations of the calcified and uncalcified layers along the tidemark to progressively larger defects apparently formed by dissolution. These larger defects appeared as cavities in the noncalcified cartilage, had smooth rather than rough edges, frequently contained coalesced debris, and often resulted in a bulge in the articular surface. Occasionally, these large defects broke through the articular surface. Defects were not observed in tibial cartilage of younger (<90 days old) hamsters or in femoral cartilage from hamsters of any age. Exercise neither protected against nor increased the severity of the defects. Collagen cross-linking by pyridinoline was examined as a function of age and increased from 1,090 to 3,062 micromoles of pyridinoline/mole of hydroxyproline over the period of 1-9 months of age but was not correlated with defect formation. With increasing age, these focal tidemark defects could lead to osteoarthrosis-like cartilage lesions. (+info)
Transformations in embryonic motility in chick: kinematic correlates of type I and II motility at E9 and E12.
Soon after hatching, chicks exhibit an array of adaptive, coordinated behaviors. Chick embryos also acquire nearly 18 days of movement experience, referred to as embryonic motility, before hatching. The chick expresses three forms of motility, types I, II, and III, and each emerges at a different stage of embryonic development. Although much is known about the mechanisms associated with motility at early embryonic stages and at the onset of hatching, the transformations in behavior and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine how motility is modified during the first expected transformation, from type I to type II. It was hypothesized that kinematic features for motility at embryonic day 12 (E12) would differ significantly from features at E9 because type II motility emerges during E11. Embryos were video taped for extended intervals in ovo at E9 or E12 and entire sequences of motility were computer digitized for kinematic analyses. Results reported here indicate that several of the kinematic features characteristic of motility at E9 are also reliable features at E12. On the basis of these findings, a kinematic definition of type I motility is posed for use in subsequent behavioral studies. Several parameters distinguished motility at E12 from E9. The most notable difference between ages was the less regular timing of repetitive limb movements at E12, a finding consistent with recent reports suggesting early motility is an emergent product of a transient neural network rather than a specialized pattern generator. As predicted from established definitions for type II motility, startle-like movements were common at E12; however, they also were present in many kinematic plots at E9, suggesting the discreet age-dependent boundaries in the established definition for type II motility may require modification. Some age-related differences, such as increased intralimb coordination and excursion velocity, may be prerequisites for adaptive behavior after hatching. (+info)
Role of proprioceptive signals from an insect femur-tibia joint in patterning motoneuronal activity of an adjacent leg joint.
Interjoint reflex function of the insect leg contributes to postural control at rest or to movement control during locomotor movements. In the stick insect (Carausius morosus), we investigated the role that sensory signals from the femoral chordotonal organ (fCO), the transducer of the femur-tibia (FT) joint, play in patterning motoneuronal activity in the adjacent coxa-trochanteral (CT) joint when the joint control networks are in the movement control mode of the active behavioral state. In the active behavioral state, sensory signals from the fCO induced transitions of activity between antagonistic motoneuron pools, i.e., the levator trochanteris and the depressor trochanteris motoneurons. As such, elongation of the fCO, signaling flexion of the FT joint, terminated depressor motoneuron activity and initiated activity in levator motoneurons. Relaxation of the fCO, signaling extension of the FT joint, induced the opposite transition by initiating depressor motoneuron activity and terminating levator motoneuron activity. This interjoint influence of sensory signals from the fCO was independent of the generation of the intrajoint reflex reversal in the FT joint, i.e., the "active reaction," which is released by elongation signals from the fCO. The generation of these transitions in activity of trochanteral motoneurons barely depended on position or velocity signals from the fCO. This contrasts with the situation in the resting behavioral state when interjoint reflex action markedly depends on actual fCO stimulus parameters, i.e., position and velocity signals. In the active behavioral state, movement signals from the fCO obviously trigger or release centrally generated transitions in motoneuron activity, e.g., by affecting central rhythm generating networks driving trochanteral motoneuron pools. This conclusion was tested by stimulating the fCO in "fictive rhythmic" preparations, activated by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in the otherwise isolated and deafferented mesothoracic ganglion. In this situation, sensory signals from the fCO did in fact reset and entrain rhythmic activity in trochanteral motoneurons. The results indicate for the first time that when the stick insect locomotor system is active, sensory signals from the proprioceptor of one leg joint, i.e., the fCO, pattern motor activity in an adjacent leg joint, i.e., the CT joint, by affecting the central rhythm generating network driving the motoneurons of the adjacent joint. (+info)
Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea.
Identification of common dietary substances capable of affording protection or modulating the onset and severity of arthritis may have important human health implications. An antioxidant-rich polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (green tea polyphenols, GTPs) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties in experimental animals. In this study we determined the effect of oral consumption of GTP on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In three independent experiments mice given GTP in water exhibited significantly reduced incidence of arthritis (33% to 50%) as compared with mice not given GTP in water (84% to 100%). The arthritis index also was significantly lower in GTP-fed animals. Western blot analysis showed a marked reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the arthritic joints in GTP-fed mice demonstrated only marginal joint infiltration by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells as opposed to massive cellular infiltration and fully developed pannus in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice. The neutral endopeptidase activity was approximately 7-fold higher in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice in comparison to nonarthritic joints of unimmunized mice whereas it was only 2-fold higher in the arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Additionally, total IgG and type II collagen-specific IgG levels were lower in serum and arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Taken together our studies suggest that a polyphenolic fraction from green tea that is rich in antioxidants may be useful in the prevention of onset and severity of arthritis. (+info)
Extended field of view sonography in musculoskeletal imaging.
The usage patterns and benefits of extended field of view sonography were analyzed prospectively in 100 consecutive musculoskeletal ultrasonographic examinations. Extended field of view sonography was used in 23 of 58 abnormal cases (10 of 41 shoulders, five of eight other joints, seven of seven extra-articular extremities, one of two interventional procedures) and two of 42 normal cases. Of 23 abnormal cases using extended field of view sonography (12 of 46 tendon tears and 11 of 12 fluid collections or masses), this modality helped in measuring abnormalities in 13, displaying abnormalities in 19, showing spatial relationships in 17, communicating findings in 13, and making diagnoses in 0. Extended field of view is a useful technique for musculoskeletal ultrasonography. The primary benefits are measuring and displaying abnormalities (most often fluid collections or masses and extra-articular extremity abnormalities). (+info)
GDF5 coordinates bone and joint formation during digit development.
A functional skeletal system requires the coordinated development of many different tissue types, including cartilage, bones, joints, and tendons. Members of the Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of secreted signaling molecules have been implicated as endogenous regulators of skeletal development. This is based on their expression during bone and joint formation, their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage, and the skeletal abnormalities present in animals with mutations in BMP family members. One member of this family, Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), is encoded by the mouse brachypodism locus. Mice with mutations in this gene show reductions in the length of bones in the limbs, altered formation of bones and joints in the sternum, and a reduction in the number of bones in the digits. The expression pattern of Gdf5 during normal development and the phenotypes seen in mice with single or double mutations in Gdf5 and Bmp5 suggested that Gdf5 has multiple functions in skeletogenesis, including roles in joint and cartilage development. To further understand the function of GDF5 in skeletal development, we assayed the response of developing chick and mouse limbs to recombinant GDF5 protein. The results from these assays, coupled with an analysis of the development of brachypodism digits, indicate that GDF5 is necessary and sufficient for both cartilage development and the restriction of joint formation to the appropriate location. Thus, GDF5 function in the digits demonstrates a link between cartilage development and joint development and is an important determinant of the pattern of bones and articulations in the digits. (+info)