Nonunion of tibial stress fractures in patients with deformed arthritic knees. Treatment using modular total knee arthroplasty.
In two years we treated four women with ununited stress fractures of their proximal tibial diaphyses. They all had arthritis and valgus deformity. The stress fractures had been treated elsewhere by non-operative means in three patients and by open reduction and internal fixation in one, but had failed to unite. After treatment with a modular total knee prosthesis with a long tibial stem extension, all the fractures united. A modular total knee prosthesis is suitable for the rare and difficult problem of ununited tibial stress fractures in patients with deformed arthritic knees since it corrects the deformity and the adverse biomechanics at the fracture site, stabilises the fracture and treats the arthritis. (+info)
Correction of genu recurvatum by the Ilizarov method.
The Ilizarov apparatus was used to carry out opening-wedge callotasis of the proximal tibia in ten patients who had suffered premature asymmetrical closure of the proximal tibial physis and subsequent genu recurvatum. In four knees, the genu recurvatum was entirely due to osseous deformity, whereas in six it was associated with capsuloligamentous abnormality. Preoperatively, the angle of recurvatum averaged 19.6 degrees (15 to 26), the angle of tilt of the tibial plateau, 76.6 degrees (62 to 90), and the ipsilateral limb shortening, 2.7 cm (0.5 to 8.7). The average time for correction was 49 days (23 to 85). The average duration of external fixation was 150 days (88 to 210). Three patients suffered complications including patella infera, pin-track infection and transient peroneal nerve palsy. At a mean follow-up of 4.4 years, all patients, except one, had achieved an excellent or good radiological and functional outcome. (+info)
A measure of limited joint motion and deformity correlates with HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with a poor outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a measure was developed of limited joint motion and deformity, a deformity index (DI), and correlated biochemical and genetic variables with the magnitude of the DI. METHODS: Forty patients were evaluated in a cross sectional study. Clinical measures included the DI and Health Assessment Questionnaire, and disease variables included the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles. RESULTS: Significant correlations were noted between increasing DI and duration of RA and concentration of C reactive protein. Patients with a DQB1*301 allele or DR4 allele had a higher DI than those without, and a positive trend was noted between increasing DI and dose of DRB1 RA susceptibility alleles. The trend was lost when a non-linear regression technique was used to remove the effect attributable to C reactive protein, suggesting an interrelation between persistent inflammation and genetics in determining total joint damage. CONCLUSIONS: The DI may be useful to study interactions between genetic and inflammatory processes in rheumatoid disease progression. (+info)
Development of the ball-and-socket ankle as assessed by radiography and arthrography. A long-term follow-up report.
We studied the development of ball-and-socket deformity of the ankle by arthrography and radiography in 14 ankles of ten patients with congenital longitudinal deficiency of the fibula accompanied by various anomalies. The mean follow-up was for 18 years 10 months. In three ankles in infants less than one year old the lateral and medial sides of the ankle were already slightly round. In another seven ankles the ball-and-socket appearance developed before the age of five years. This was thought to be due to osseous coalition which limits eversion and inversion. In another four ankles in children who were over the age of one year at the initial examination, the deformity was demonstrated by arthrography and radiography at their first examination. Ball-and-socket deformity accompanied by tarsal coalition is an acquired deformity secondary to limitation of movement of the subtalar and midtarsal joints. It has completely developed by about five years of age. (+info)
Radiological changes five years after unicompartmental knee replacement.
Failure of a unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) may be caused by progressive osteoarthritis of the knee and/or failure of the prosthesis. Limb alignment can influence both of these factors. We have examined the fate of the other compartments and measured changes in leg alignment after UKR. A total of 50 UKRs was carried out on 45 carefully selected patients between 1989 and 1992. At operation, deliberate attempts were made to avoid overcorrection of the deformity. Four patients died, one patient was lost to follow-up and two knees were revised before review which was at a minimum of five years. Standard long-leg weight-bearing anteroposterior views of the knee and skyline views of the patellofemoral joint were taken before and at eight months and five years after operation. The radiographs of the remaining 43 knees were reviewed twice by blind and randomised assessment to measure the progression of osteoarthritis within the joints. Overcorrection of the deformity in the coronal plane was avoided in all but two knees. Only one showed evidence of progression of osteoarthritis within the patellofemoral joint, and this was only identified in one of the four assessments. Deterioration in the state of the opposite tibiofemoral compartment was not seen. Varus deformity tended to recur. Recurrent varus of 2 degrees was observed between eight months and five years after operation. There was no correlation between the postoperative tibiofemoral angle and the extent of recurrent varus recorded at five years. Changes in alignment may be indicative of minor polyethylene wear or of subsidence of the tibial component. The incidence of progressive osteoarthritis within the knee was very low after UKR. Patients should be carefully selected and overcorrection of the deformity be avoided. (+info)
Improvement in function after valgus bracing of the knee. An analysis of gait symmetry.
The use of a valgus brace can effectively relieve the symptoms of unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. This study provides an objective measurement of function by analysis of gait symmetry. This was measured in 30 patients on four separate occasions: immediately before and after initial fitting and then again at three months with the brace on and off. All patients reported immediate symptomatic improvement with less pain on walking. After fitting the brace, symmetry indices of stance and the swing phase of gait showed a consistent and immediate improvement at 0 and 3 months, respectively, of 3.92% (p = 0.030) and 3.40% (p = 0.025) in the stance phase and 11.78% (p = 0.020) and 9.58% (p = 0.005) in the swing phase. This was confirmed by a significant improvement at three months in the mean Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score from 69.9 to 82.0 (p < 0.001). Thus, wearing a valgus brace gives a significant and immediate improvement in the function of patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee, as measured by analysis of gait symmetry. (+info)
Treatment of cubitus varus using the Ilizarov technique of distraction osteogenesis.
Seven children with a post-traumatic cubitus varus deformity were treated using the Ilizarov technique of distraction osteogenesis. The outcome was rated as excellent in each case and all were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance. No complications had been encountered by the latest follow-up at a mean of 66.7 months. This technique seems reliable for the treatment of such deformities, provided that it achieves full correction by gradual distraction. Nerve palsy and unsightly scars are avoided, and the range of movement of adjacent joints is preserved. (+info)
High tibial osteotomy for valgus and varus deformities of the knee.
In 53 patients with a mean age of 38 (17-73) years, 71 high tibial osteotomies were performed. Twenty-three patients had no radiological signs of osteoarthrosis (Ahlback grade 0), whereas 26 patients had primary and 22 patients secondary osteoarthritis. Follow-up was 10.5 (5.8-16.6) years. The patients without radiological osteoarthrosis achieved almost exclusively good or very good scores using the Lysholm-Gillquist (96%) and the Insall scale (83%). By contrast, only 29% of the patients with radiological osteoarthritis achieved good or very good scores. Whether the patient had primary or secondary osteoarthrosis was of no influence. Neither was the preoperative axial deviation. (+info)