Hospital restructuring and the changing nature of the physical therapist's role.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify role behavior changes of acute care physical therapists and changes in the organizational and professional context of hospitals following restructuring. METHODS: A Delphi technique, which involved a panel of 100 randomly selected acute care physical therapy managers, was used as the research design for this study. Responses from rounds 1 and 2 were synthesized and organized into exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories for round 3. Data obtained from round 3 were used to develop a comprehensive perspective on the changes that have occurred. RESULTS: Changed role behaviors in patient care and professional interaction, including increased emphasis on evaluation, planning, teaching, supervising, and collaboration, appeared to be extensions of unchanged role behaviors. Reported changes in the structural and professional context of physical therapy services included using critical pathways to guide care, providing services system-wide, and using educational activities and meetings to maintain a sense of community. The importance of professionalism to physical therapists' work was identified and related to specific role behavior changes. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The changing role of physical therapists in acute care hospitals includes an increased emphasis on higher-level skills in patient care and professional interaction and the continuing importance of professionalism. (+info)
Hospitals and managed care: catching up with the networks.
Although the growth of managed care is having a significant impact on hospitals, organizational response to managed care remains fragmented. We conducted a survey of 83 hospitals nationwide that indicated that most hospitals now have at least one person devoted to managed care initiatives. These individuals, however, often spend most of their time on current issues, such as contracting with managed care organizations and physician relations. Concerns for the future, such as network development and marketing, although important, receive less immediate attention form these individuals. Hospital managed care executives must take a more proactive role in long range managed care planning by collaborating with managed care organizations and pharmaceutical companies. (+info)
Relationship between shift work and onset of hypertension in a cohort of manual workers.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the possibility of a relationship between blood pressure level and rotating 3-shift work in a prospective follow-up of workers in a zipper and aluminum sash factory in Japan. METHODS: Altogether 1551 men aged 18-49 years were followed prospectively for 5 years, and the cumulative incidence of hypertension among 3-shift workers was compared with that of day workers. A multiple logistic analysis was used for adjusting for base-line characteristics such as age, body mass index, blood pressure, and drinking habit. RESULTS: In the younger age group, the relative risk of the rotating 3-shift workers during the observational period was increased compared with that of day workers after adjustment for the confounding factors. In the older group, the cumulative incidence of hypertension was not higher for workers who had continued shift work. However, a relatively high risk of hypertension was found for workers who converted from 3-shift work to day work when compared with those who remained on shift work and day work. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that there is an association between 3-shift work and blood pressure. (+info)
How do current Senior Registrar job profiles relate to proposed Specialist Registrar FTTA posts? Fixed-term training appointments.
The proposed United Kingdom training pathway for Orthodontic Specialist Registrars is now accepted to be of 3 years duration. In the final year, Specialist Registrars will take the Membership in Orthodontics, with the end point of training marked by the award of the Certificate of Completion on Specialist Training (CCST). There will be a predetermined number of fixed-term training appointments (FTTAs), available through competitive entry, which will provide 2 years of additional training and lead to eligibility to apply for a Consultant appointment. The end point of the Specialist Registrar (FTTA) will be marked by the Intercollegiate Specialty Examination (ISE). The current 3-year Senior Registrar orthodontic training will be reduced to 2 years as the transition to the Specialist Registrar FTTA grade occurs. In the light of these changes, a survey of full time NHS Senior Registrar posts was carried out to examine current job profiles with particular reference to their suitability for assimilation into the Specialist Registrar (FTTA) grade and preparation for the ISE. (+info)
The role of respiratory care practitioners in a changing healthcare system: emerging areas of clinical practice.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shifts in respiratory care practice in the context of changing healthcare system and market dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Telephone survey, structured interview, and case studies. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 471 respiratory care practitioners (RCPs), drawn from the membership database of the American Association for Respiratory Care. We also interviewed 10 employers of RCPs and conducted 2 in-depth case studies to supplement our survey results. We used several statistical techniques to analyze our data, including calculation of population-weighted descriptive statistics and multivariate regression models. RESULTS: Changes in the healthcare system have prompted RCPs to broaden their practice settings, skills, and responsibilities. Respiratory care practitioners are taking part in managed care-related activities, such as cost control and disease management. We found that the need for certain skills and responsibilities varies by practice setting. In our interviews, employers considered RCPs cost effective providers for certain services. CONCLUSIONS: The practice of respiratory care is evolving to meet the changing needs of the healthcare system. A key challenge is to ensure appropriate growth and development of the respiratory care profession, as well as the delivery of appropriate services under new care management settings and processes. (+info)
The virtue of nursing: the covenant of care.
It is argued that the current confusion about the role and purpose of the British nurse is a consequence of the modern rejection and consequent fragmentation of the inherited nursing tradition. The nature of this tradition, in which nurses were inducted into the moral virtues of care, is examined and its relevance to patient welfare is demonstrated. Practical suggestions are made as to how this moral tradition might be reappropriated and reinvigorated for modern nursing. (+info)
The Medicare prescription drug benefit: how will the game be played?
Most recent proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program suggest using pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) to control costs and promote quality. However, the proposals give little detail on the institutional arrangements that would govern PBM operations and drug procurement. The recent Congressional Budget Office cost estimate of the Clinton administration's proposal reflects this lack of detail on how PBMs would function. We sketch an approach for structuring PBM operations that focuses on competition among PBMs, manufacturers, and distributors; incentive pricing; and risk sharing with PBMs. (+info)
A competency model for general practice: implications for selection, training, and development.
BACKGROUND: The role of the general practitioner (GP) has changed significantly over the past decade. This problem is compounded by growing concern over postgraduate attrition rates from medicine, with current estimates as high as 19%. AIM: To define a comprehensive model of the competencies required for the job role of GP. METHOD: Three independent studies were conducted to define GP competencies including (1) critical incidents focus groups with GPs, (2) behavioural coding of GP-patient consultations, and (3) critical incidents interviews with patients. Study 1 was conducted with GPs (n = 35) from the Trent region. Study 2 involved observation of GP-patient consultations (n = 33 consultations), and Study 3 was conducted with patients (n = 21), all from a Midlands-based medical practice. RESULTS: The data collected from the three studies provided strong evidence for a competency model comprising 11 categories with a summary of the associated behavioural descriptions. Example competencies included empathy and sensitivity, communication skills, clinical knowledge and expertise, conceptual thinking, and coping with pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Triangulation of results was achieved from three independent studies. The competencies derived imply that a greater account of personal attributes needs to be considered in recruitment and training, rather than focusing on academic and clinical competency alone. The model could be employed for future research in design of selection techniques for the role of GP. (+info)