Survival after breast cancer in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
BACKGROUND: Studies of survival following breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers have yielded conflicting results. We undertook an analysis of a community-based study of Ashkenazi Jews to investigate the effect of three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on survival among patients with breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We collected blood samples and questionnaire data from 5318 Ashkenazi Jewish volunteers. The blood samples were tested for 185delAG (two nucleotide deletion) and 5382insC (single nucleotide insertion) mutations in BRCA1 and the 6174delT (single nucleotide deletion) mutation in BRCA2. To estimate survival differences in the affected relatives according to their BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carrier status, we devised and applied a novel extension of the kin-cohort method. RESULTS: Fifty mutation carriers reported that 58 of their first-degree relatives had been diagnosed with breast cancer and 10 with ovarian cancer; 907 noncarriers reported 979 first-degree relatives with breast cancer and 116 with ovarian cancer. Kaplan-Meier estimates of median survival after breast cancer were 16 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11-40) in the relatives of carriers and 18 years (95% CI = 15-22) in the relatives of noncarriers, a difference that was not statistically significant (two-sided P = .87). There was also no difference in survival times among the 126 first-degree relatives with ovarian cancer. We found no survival difference between patients with breast or ovarian cancer who were inferred carriers of BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations and noncarriers. CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations appeared to have neither better nor worse survival prognosis. (+info)
DYT1 mutation in French families with idiopathic torsion dystonia.
A GAG deletion at position 946 in DYT1, one of the genes responsible for autosomal dominant idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD), has recently been identified. We tested 24 families and six isolated cases with ITD and found 14 individuals from six French families who carried this mutation, indicating that 20% of the affected families carried the DYT1 mutation. Age at onset was always before 20 years (mean, 9+/-4 years). Interestingly, the site of onset was the upper limb in all but one patient. Dystonia was generalized in seven patients and remained focal or segmental in three patients. The absence of common haplotypes among DYT1 families suggests that at least six independent founder mutations have occurred. In addition, one Ashkenazi Jewish family carried the common haplotype described previously in Ashkenazi Jewish patients, but it was absent in the other family. Moreover, the dystonia remained focal in the latter family when compared with the usual generalized phenotype in patients with the common Ashkenazi Jewish haplotype. This indicates that there are at least two founder mutations in this population. (+info)
Frequency of p53 mutations in breast carcinomas from Ashkenazi Jewish carriers of BRCA1 mutations.
BACKGROUND: Breast carcinomas occurring in carriers of BRCA1 gene mutations may have a distinctly different pathway of molecular pathogenesis from those occurring in noncarriers. Data from murine models implicate loss of p53 (also known as TP53) gene function as a critical early event in the malignant transformation of cells with a BRCA1 mutation. Therefore, breast tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers might be expected to exhibit a high frequency of p53 mutations. This study examined the frequency of p53 mutations in the breast tumors of Ashkenazi Jewish carriers and noncarriers of BRCA1 mutations. METHODS: Tumor DNA from carriers and noncarriers of BRCA1 mutations was screened for mutations in exons 4 through 10 of the p53 gene by use of the polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the amplified DNA. Direct sequencing was performed on gene fragments that showed altered mobility in SSCP analysis. RESULTS: Mutations in the p53 gene were detected in 10 of 13 tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers versus 10 of 33 tumors from non-carriers (two-sided P = .007). The p53 mutations were distributed throughout exons 4 through 10 and included both protein-truncating and missense mutations in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically significantly higher frequency of p53 mutations was found in breast tumors from carriers of BRCA1 mutations than from noncarriers, which adds to the accumulating evidence that loss of p53 function is an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of BRCA1 mutation-associated breast tumors. This finding may have implications for understanding phenotypic differences and potential prognostic differences between BRCA1 mutation-associated hereditary breast cancers and sporadic cancers. (+info)
Benefits and costs of screening Ashkenazi Jewish women for BRCA1 and BRCA2.
PURPOSE: To determine the survival benefit and cost-effectiveness of screening Ashkenazi Jewish women for three specific BRCA1/2 gene mutations. METHODS: We used a Markov model and Monte Carlo analysis to estimate the survival benefit and cost-effectiveness of screening for three specific mutations in a population in which their prevalence is 2.5% and the associated cancer risks are 56% for breast cancer and 16% for ovarian cancer. We assumed that the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 98% and 99%, respectively, that bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy would reduce ovarian cancer risk by 45%, and that bilateral prophylactic mastectomy would reduce breast cancer risk by 90%. We used Medicare payment data for treatment costs and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for cancer survival. RESULTS: Our model suggests that genetic screening of this population could prolong average nondiscounted survival by 38 days (95% probability interval, 22 to 57 days) for combined surgery, 33 days (95% probability interval, 18 to 43 days) for mastectomy, 11 days (95% probability interval, 4 to 25 days) for oophorectomy, and 6 days (95% probability interval, 3 to 8 days) for surveillance. The respective cost-effectiveness ratios per life-year saved, with a discount rate of 3%, are $20,717, $29,970, $72,780, and $134,273. CONCLUSION: In this Ashkenazi Jewish population, with a high prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations, genetic screening may significantly increase average survival and, depending on costs and screening/treatment strategies, may be cost-effective by the standards of accepted cancer screening tests. According to our model, screening is cost-effective only if all women who test positive undergo prophylactic surgery. These estimates require confirmation through prospective observational studies and clinical trials. (+info)
Mutation and haplotype studies of familial Mediterranean fever reveal new ancestral relationships and evidence for a high carrier frequency with reduced penetrance in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recessive disorder characterized by episodes of fever with serositis or synovitis. The FMF gene (MEFV) was cloned recently, and four missense mutations were identified. Here we present data from non-Ashkenazi Jewish and Arab patients in whom we had not originally found mutations and from a new, more ethnically diverse panel. Among 90 symptomatic mutation-positive individuals, 11 mutations accounted for 79% of carrier chromosomes. Of the two mutations that are novel, one alters the same residue (680) as a previously known mutation, and the other (P369S) is located in exon 3. Consistent with another recent report, the E148Q mutation was observed in patients of several ethnicities and on multiple microsatellite haplotypes, but haplotype data indicate an ancestral relationships between non-Jewish Italian and Ashkenazi Jewish patients with FMF and other affected populations. Among approximately 200 anonymous Ashkenazi Jewish DNA samples, the MEFV carrier frequency was 21%, with E148Q the most common mutation. Several lines of evidence indicate reduced penetrance among Ashkenazi Jews, especially for E148Q, P369S, and K695R. Nevertheless, E148Q helps account for recessive inheritance in an Ashkenazi family previously reported as an unusual case of dominantly inherited FMF. The presence of three frequent MEFV mutations in multiple Mediterranean populations strongly suggests a heterozygote advantage in this geographic region. (+info)
The prevalence of common BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among Ashkenazi Jews.
Three founder mutations in the cancer-associated genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 occur frequently enough among Ashkenazi Jews to warrant consideration of genetic testing outside the setting of high-risk families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. We estimated the prevalence of these founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the general population of Ashkenazi Jews according to age at testing, personal cancer history, and family cancer history. We compared the results of anonymous genetic testing of blood samples obtained in a survey of >5,000 Jewish participants from the Washington, DC, area with personal and family cancer histories obtained from questionnaires completed by the participants. In all subgroups defined by age and cancer history, fewer mutations were found in this community sample than in clinical series studied to date. For example, 11 (10%) of 109 Jewish women who had been given a diagnosis of breast cancer in their forties carried one of the mutations. The most important predictor of mutation status was a previous diagnosis of breast or ovarian cancer. In men and in women never given a diagnosis of cancer, family history of breast cancer before age 50 years was the strongest predictor. As interest in genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the Jewish community broadens, community-based estimates such as these help guide those seeking and those offering such testing. Even with accurate estimates of the likelihood of carrying a mutation and the likelihood of developing cancer if a mutation is detected, the most vexing clinical problems remain. (+info)
Ancestral origins and worldwide distribution of the PRNP 200K mutation causing familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belongs to a group of prion diseases that may be infectious, sporadic, or hereditary. The 200K point mutation in the PRNP gene is the most frequent cause of hereditary CJD, accounting for >70% of families with CJD worldwide. Prevalence of the 200K variant of familial CJD is especially high in Slovakia, Chile, and Italy, and among populations of Libyan and Tunisian Jews. To study ancestral origins of the 200K mutation-associated chromosomes, we selected microsatellite markers flanking the PRNP gene on chromosome 20p12-pter and an intragenic single-nucleotide polymorphism at the PRNP codon 129. Haplotypes were constructed for 62 CJD families originating from 11 world populations. The results show that Libyan, Tunisian, Italian, Chilean, and Spanish families share a major haplotype, suggesting that the 200K mutation may have originated from a single mutational event, perhaps in Spain, and spread to all these populations with Sephardic migrants expelled from Spain in the Middle Ages. Slovakian families and a family of Polish origin show another unique haplotype. The haplotypes in families from Germany, Sicily, Austria, and Japan are different from the Mediterranean or eastern European haplotypes. On the basis of this study, we conclude that founder effect and independent mutational events are responsible for the current geographic distribution of hereditary CJD associated with the 200K mutation. (+info)
Age estimates of two common mutations causing factor XI deficiency: recent genetic drift is not necessary for elevated disease incidence among Ashkenazi Jews.
The type II and type III mutations at the FXI locus, which cause coagulation factor XI deficiency, have high frequencies in Jewish populations. The type III mutation is largely restricted to Ashkenazi Jews, but the type II mutation is observed at high frequency in both Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jews, suggesting the possibility that the mutation appeared before the separation of these communities. Here we report estimates of the ages of the type II and type III mutations, based on the observed distribution of allelic variants at a flanking microsatellite marker (D4S171). The results are consistent with a recent origin for the type III mutation but suggest that the type II mutation appeared >120 generations ago. This finding demonstrates that the high frequency of the type II mutation among Jews is independent of the demographic upheavals among Ashkenazi Jews in the 16th and 17th centuries. (+info)