Multi-bracket appliance in management of mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone graft.
BACKGROUND: The most commonly used tool for maxillo-mandibular fixation to the patient who underwent reconstruction using a vascularized bone graft after mandibular resection is a dental arch-bar. However, the occlusal relationship achieved by this method is not ideal. Different from the dental arch-bar, the multi-bracket appliance which is frequently used in orthodontic treatment can control the position of each individual tooth three dimensionally. Thus, this appliance was applied for maxillo-mandibular fixation to patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction using a vascularized bone graft. METHODS: A multi-bracket appliance was applied to three patients. Prior to the surgery, standard edgewise brackets were bonded to the teeth in the maxilla and in the remaining mandible. After mandibular resection, wires for maxillo-mandibular fixation were applied. The harvested bone was then carefully fixed with miniplates to maintain the occlusion. The multi-bracket appliance was worn for 3 months when the wound contraction became mild. RESULTS: All three cases demonstrated stable and good occlusion. They also demonstrated satisfactory post-surgical facial appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional dental arch-bars, a multi-bracket appliance offers improved management of mandibular reconstruction. Firstly, its properties are helpful in maintaining occlusion of the remaining dentition accurately in bone grafting procedure as well as protecting against postsurgical wound contraction. Secondly, the multi-bracket appliance keeps the oral cavity clean without periodontal injury. As a result, stable occlusion of the residual teeth and good facial appearance were obtained. (+info)
Open bite: stability after bimaxillary surgery--2-year treatment outcomes in 58 patients.
Stability after bimaxillary surgery to correct open bite malocclusion and mandibular retrognathism was evaluated on lateral cephalograms before surgery, 8 weeks post-operatively, and after 2 years. The 58 consecutive patients were treated to a normal occlusion and good facial aesthetics. Treatment included the orthodontic alignment of teeth by maxillary and mandibular fixed appliances, Le Fort I osteotomy, and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Twenty-six patients also had a genioplasty. Intra-osseous wires or bicortical screws were used for fixation. Twenty-three patients had maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF) for 8 weeks or more, six for 4-7 weeks, 14 for 1-3 weeks, and 15 had no fixation. At follow-up 2 years later, the maxilla remained unchanged and the mandible had rotated on average 1.4 degrees posteriorly. Seventeen patients had an open bite. Among them, eight patients had undergone segmental osteotomies. The relapse was mainly due to incisor proclination. The most stabile overbite was found in the group with no MMF after surgery. (+info)
Skeletal and dento-alveolar stability after surgical-orthodontic treatment of anterior open bite: a retrospective study.
The aim of this investigation was to assess skeletal and dento-alveolar stability after surgical-orthodontic correction of skeletal anterior open bite treated by maxillary intrusion (group A) versus extrusion (group B). The cephalometric records of 49 adult anterior open bite patients (group A: n = 38, group B: n = 11), treated by the same maxillofacial surgeon, were examined at different timepoints, i.e. at the start of the orthodontic treatment (T1), before surgery (T2), immediately after surgery (T3), early post-operatively (+/- 20 weeks, T4) and one year post-operatively (T5). A bimaxillary operation was performed in 31 of the patients in group A and in six in group B. Rigid internal fixation was standard. If maxillary expansion was necessary, surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SRPE) was performed at least 9 months before the Le Fort I osteotomy. Forty-five patients received combined surgical and orthodontic treatment. The surgical open bite reduction (A, mean 3.9 mm; B, mean 7.7 mm) and the increase of overbite (A, mean 2.4 mm; B, mean 2.7 mm), remained stable one year post-operatively. SNA (T2-T3), showed a high tendency for relapse. The clockwise rotation of the palatal plane (1.7 degrees; T2-T3), relapsed completely within the first post-operative year. Anterior facial height reduction (A, mean -5.5 mm; B, mean -0.8 mm) occurred at the time of surgery. It can be concluded that open bite patients, treated by posterior Le Fort I impaction as well as with anterior extrusion, with or without an additional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), one year post-surgery, exhibit relatively good clinical dental and skeletal stability. (+info)
Effects of intermaxillary fixation during orthognathic surgery on respiratory function after general anesthesia.
I examined the relationship between preoperative breathing route (nasal and/or oral) and respiratory status in 29 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery and intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with general anesthesia and in 14 healthy, adult control volunteers who received IMF without surgery or anesthesia. The tidal volume (VT), minute respiratory volume (MV), respiratory rate, and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration were measured for both nasal and oral breathing before and after IMF. Pulse oximetry recordings were also taken. There was no significant effect of IMF on any parameter in the volunteers. Fifteen patients engaged in nasal breathing only both before and after surgery with IMF (group pN), and 7 patients had combined nasal and oral breathing before but only nasal breathing after IMF (group pNO). VT and MV decreased (536-357 mL and 7.84-5.40 L, respectively) in group pNO after IMF. These results suggest that assessment of the preoperative breathing status is helpful in predicting postoperative respiratory function after IMF and indicate that patients with preoperative mouth breathing require greater respiratory care after general anesthesia with IMF. (+info)
Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a case report.
Bony ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a male patient was not diagnosed until the patient reached his early teens, at which time the condition was treated with a costochondral graft. At the time of treatment, there was an expectation that further orthognathic surgery would be required to correct the skeletal deformity. However, with the release of the ankylosis and growth of the costochondral graft, a good functional and esthetic result was achieved without further surgery. It is important that family dentists be aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of TMJ ankylosis, to allow early diagnosis and treatment. (+info)
Post-operative stability of the maxilla treated with Le Fort I and horseshoe osteotomies in bimaxillary surgery.
In this study, the post-operative change of the maxilla in six non-cleft patients who underwent combination (Le Fort I and horseshoe) osteotomy for superior repositioning of the maxilla was investigated. In all patients, the maxilla was first osteotomized and fixed with four Luhr plates. No iliac bone graft was applied to the maxilla. A bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible (BSSRO) was then carried out and titanium screw fixation was performed. No maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF) with stainless steel wire was used post-operatively in any patient. Lateral cephalograms were obtained pre-operatively, 5 days post-operatively, and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The changes in anterior nasal spine (ANS), point A, upper incisor (U1), and point of maxillary tuberosity (PMT) were examined. The maxillae in the six subjects were repositioned nearly in their planned positions during surgery and no significant post-operative changes in the examined points of the maxilla were found. These results suggest that a combination of a Le Fort I and horseshoe osteotomy is a useful technique for reliable superior repositioning of the maxilla. The post-operative change in the maxilla using this combination osteotomy is comparatively stable. (+info)
Moulding of the generate to control open bite during mandibular distraction osteogenesis.
Distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton has become a widely accepted, safe, and effective means of craniofacial reconstructive surgery. Despite excellent results in general, there are still some uncertainties related to the procedure, such as development of an anterior open bite (AOB) during mandibular distraction. The aim of this study was to examine whether 'moulding of the generate', i.e. use of intermaxillary elastics during the active distraction phase is possible to close the mandibular plane angle and open bite. Three subjects, 13- and 15-year-old males and a 7-year-old female, underwent mandibular linear and angular bilateral distraction osteogenesis with moulding of the generate. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before the introduction of elastics and following distraction, once the activation was stopped and the patients were ready for the consolidation phase. Conventional cephalometric measurements were used to assess possible changes in the mandibular plane angle and incisor position. Three different anchorage systems (dental, orthopaedic, and skeletal) were used for placement of the intermaxillary elastics. Cephalometric examination showed that the mandibular plane angle was decreased during active distraction osteogenesis with the introduction of elastics and angulation of the distraction device. Depending on the type of elastic anchorage system, smaller or greater amounts of extrusion of the incisors were noted. Moulding of the generate during active distraction can be performed to reduce the mandibular plane angle and open bite. To prevent unwanted dentoalveolar changes from occurring during elastic traction, skeletal rather than dental fixation of the elastics is recommended. Intrusive mechanics may be incorporated into the orthodontic appliances to balance extrusive force by the moulding elastics. (+info)
Management of traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa.
Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of facial trauma that can have neurological and life-threatening implications. This article discusses the anatomic features that predispose patients to this type of injury, as well as the clinical features and mechanism of injury for this rare type of condylar deformity, to help practitioners recognize this easily overlooked injury and avoid disastrous complications. The article summarizes previously published case reports of this rare complication of condylar trauma and presents a case for which initial diagnosis and a management protocol are described. (+info)