Source of inappropriate receptive fields in cortical somatotopic maps from rats that sustained neonatal forelimb removal.
Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these animals revealed few sites in the forelimb-stump representation where responses to hindlimb stimulation also could be recorded. Recently we reported that hindlimb inputs to the SI forelimb-stump representation are suppressed functionally in neonatally amputated rats and that GABAergic inhibition is involved in this process. The present study was undertaken to assess the role that intracortical projections from the SI hindlimb representation may play in the functional reorganization of the SI forelimb-stump field in these animals. The SI forelimb-stump representation was mapped during gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor blockade, both before and after electrolytic destruction of the SI hindlimb representation. Analysis of eight amputated rats showed that 75.8% of 264 stump recording sites possessed hindlimb receptive fields before destruction of the SI hindlimb. After the lesions, significantly fewer sites (13.2% of 197) were responsive to hindlimb stimulation (P < 0.0001). Electrolytic destruction of the SI lower-jaw representation in four additional control rats with neonatal forelimb amputation did not significantly reduce the percentage of hindlimb-responsive sites in the SI stump field during GABA-receptor blockade (P = 0.98). Similar results were obtained from three manipulated rats in which the SI hindlimb representation was silenced temporarily with a local cobalt chloride injection. Analysis of response latencies to sciatic nerve stimulation in the hindlimb and forelimb-stump representations suggested that the intracortical pathway(s) mediating the hindlimb responses in the forelimb-stump field may be polysynaptic. The mean latency to sciatic nerve stimulation at responsive sites in the GABA-receptor blocked SI stump representation of neonatally amputated rats was significantly longer than that for recording sites in the hindlimb representation [26.3 +/- 8.1 (SD) ms vs. 10.8 +/- 2.4 ms, respectively, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that hindlimb input to the SI forelimb-stump representation detected in GABA-blocked cortices of neonatally forelimb amputated rats originates primarily from the SI hindlimb representation. (+info)
Effect of obesity and erect/supine posture on lateral cephalometry: relationship to sleep-disordered breathing.
Craniofacial and upper airway anatomy, obesity and posture may all play a role in compromising upper airway patency in patients with the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity, facial structure and severity of sleep-disordered breathing using lateral cephalometric measurements and to assess the effect of body posture on cephalometric measurements of upper airway calibre variables in obese and non-obese subjects. Lateral cephalometry was carried out in erect and supine postures in 73 awake male subjects randomly selected from patients referred for polysomnography who had a wide range of apnoea/hypopnoea frequencies (1-131 events x h sleep(-1)). Subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg x m(-2); n=42) and obese (BMI > or = 30 kg x m(-2); n=31) groups. Significant but weak correlations were found between apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and measurements reflecting upper airway dimensions: uvular protrusion-posterior pharyngeal wall (r=-0.26, p<0.05) and hyoid-posterior pharyngeal wall (r=0.26, p<0.05). Multiple regression using both upper airway dimensions improved the correlation to AHI (r=0.34, p=0.01). Obese subjects had greater hyoid-posterior pharyngeal wall distances than non-obese subjects, both erect (42+/-5 versus 39+/-4 mm, respectively (mean+/-SD) p<0.01) and supine (43+/-5 versus 40+/-4 mm, p<0.05). Skeletal craniofacial structure was similar in obese and non-obese subjects. In conclusion, measurements reflecting upper airway size were correlated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Differences in upper airway size measurements between obese and non-obese subjects were independent of bony craniofacial structure. (+info)
Cephalometric abnormalities in non-obese and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
The aim of this work was to comprehensively evaluate the cephalometric features in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and severity of apnoea. Forty-eight cephalometric variables were measured in 37 healthy males and 114 male OSA patients, who were classed into 54 non-obese (body mass index (BMI) <27 kg x m(-2), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)=25.3+/-16.1 events x h(-1)) and 60 obese (BMI > or = 27 kg x m(-2), AHI=45.6+/-28.0 events h(-1)) groups. Diagnostic polysomnography was carried out in all of the OSA patients and in 19 of the normal controls. The non-obese OSA patients showed several cephalometric defects compared with their BMI-matched normal controls: 1) decreased facial A-P distance at cranial base, maxilla and mandible levels and decreased bony pharynx width; 2) enlarged tongue and inferior shift of the tongue volume; 3) enlarged soft palate; 4) inferiorly positioned hyoid bone; and 5) decreased upper airway width at four different levels. More extensive and severe soft tissue abnormalities with a few defects in craniofacial bony structures were found in the obese OSA group. For the non-obese OSA group, the stepwise regression model on AHI was significant with two bony structure variables as determinants: anterior cranial base length (S-N) and mandibular length (Me-Go). Although the regression model retained only linear distance between anterior vertebra and hyoid bone (H-VL) as an explainable determinant for AHI in the obese OSA group, H-VL was significantly correlated with soft tissue measurements such as overall tongue area (Ton), inferior tongue area (Ton2) and pharyngeal airway length (PNS-V). In conclusion, Japanese obstructive sleep apnoea patients have a series of cephalometric abnormalities similar to those described in Caucasian patients, and that the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese patients may be different from that in non-obese patients. In obese patients, upper airway soft tissue enlargement may play a more important role in the development of obstructive sleep apnoea, whereas in non-obese patients, bony structure discrepancies may be the dominant contributing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea. (+info)
Craniofacial modifications in children with habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: a case-control study.
Habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea in children, which are frequently associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, may begin early in life and in relation with orocraniofacial features. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of early bone craniofacial modifications in young children with a long history of habitual snoring. Twenty-six habitually snoring children (mean age 4.6 yrs) were studied by nocturnal portable recording or diurnal polysomnography, cephalometry and orthodontic evaluation. A comparison of cephalometric findings was made between the studied group and 26 age-matched children (mean age 5.1 yrs) with no history of snoring or respiratory problems during sleep. The cephalometric analyses showed a significant increase in craniomandibular intermaxillar, lower and upper goniac angles with a retroposition and posterior rotation of the mandible (high angle face) and a reduction in the rhinopharynx space caused by higher thickness of adenoids in habitually snoring children compared with controls. Cross-bites and labial incompetence as well as daytime symptoms and familiarity for habitual snoring were found in most of the studied group of snorers compared with controls. The results indicate that upper airway obstruction during sleep is associated with mild but significant cephalometric and craniofacial modifications in children complaining of habitual snoring. Whether this skeletal conformation is genetically determined or influenced by the early onset of habitual snoring remains to be assessed. (+info)
Development of cephalic neural crest cells in embryos of Lampetra japonica, with special reference to the evolution of the jaw.
Neural crest cells contribute extensively to vertebrate head morphogenesis and their origin is an important question to address in understanding the evolution of the craniate head. The distribution pattern of cephalic crest cells was examined in embryos of one of the living agnathan vertebrates, Lampetra japonica. The initial appearance of putative crest cells was observed on the dorsal aspect of the neural rod at stage 20.5 and ventral expansion of these cells was first seen at the level of rostral somites. As in gnathostomes, cephalic crest cells migrate beneath the surface ectoderm and form three major cell populations, each being separated at the levels of rhombomeres (r) 3 and r5. The neural crest seems initially to be produced at all neuraxial levels except for the rostral-most area, and cephalic crest cells are secondarily excluded from levels r3 and r5. Such a pattern of crest cell distribution prefigures the morphology of the cranial nerve anlage. The second or middle crest cell population passes medial to the otocyst, implying that the otocyst does not serve as a barrier to separate the crest cell populations. The three cephalic crest cell populations fill the pharyngeal arch ventrally, covering the pharyngeal mesoderm laterally with the rostral-most population covering the premandibular region and mandibular arch. The third cell population is equivalent to the circumpharyngeal crest cells in the chick, and its influx into the pharyngeal region precedes the formation of postotic pharyngeal arches. Focal injection of DiI revealed the existence of an anteroposterior organization in the neural crest at the neurular stage, destined for each pharyngeal region. The crest cells derived from the posterior midbrain that express the LjOtxA gene, the Otx2 cognate, were shown to migrate into the mandibular arch, a pattern which is identical to gnathostome embryos. It was concluded that the head region of the lamprey embryo shares a common set of morphological characters with gnathostome embryos and that the morphological deviation of the mandibular arch between the gnathostomes and the lamprey is not based on the early embryonic patterning. (+info)
Morphology of the feeding system in agamid lizards: ecological correlates.
The interaction of organismal design with ecology, and its evolutionary development are the subject of many functional and ecomorphological studies. Many studies have shown that the morphology and mechanics of the masticatory apparatus in mammals are adapted to diet. To investigate the relations between diet and the morphological and physiological properties of the lizard jaw system, a detailed analysis of the structure of the jaw apparatus was undertaken in the insectivorous lizard Plocederma stellio and in closely related herbivorous lizards of the genus Uromastix. The morphological and physiological properties of the jaw system in P. stellio and U. aegyptius were studied by means of dissections, light microscopy, histochemical characterisations, and in vivo stimulation experiments. The skull of Uromastix seems to be built for forceful biting (high, short snout). Additionally, the pterygoid muscle is modified in P. stellio, resulting in an additional force component during static biting. Stimulation experiments indicate that jaw muscles in both species are fast, which is supported by histochemical stainings. However, the oxidative capacity of the jaw muscles is larger in Uromastix. Contraction characteristics and performance of the feeding system (force output) are clearly thermally dependent. We conclude that several characteristics of the jaw system (presence of extra portion of the pterygoid muscle, large oxidative capacity of jaw muscles) in Uromastix may be attributed to its herbivorous diet. Jaw muscles, however, are still faster than expected. This is presumably the result of trade-offs between the thermal characteristics of the jaw adductors and the herbivorous lifestyle of these animals. (+info)
Mechanics of ventilation in swellsharks, Cephaloscyllium ventriosum (Scyliorhinidae).
A simple two-pump model has served to describe the mechanics of ventilation in cartilaginous and bony fishes since the pioneering work of G. M. Hughes. A hallmark of this model is that water flow over the gills is continuous. Studies of feeding kinematics in the swellshark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum, however, suggested that a flow reversal occurred during prey capture and transport. Given that feeding is often considered to be simply an exaggeration of the kinematic events performed during respiration, I investigated whether flow reversals are potentially present during respiration. Pressure and impedance data were coupled with kinematic data from high-speed video footage and dye studies and used to infer patterns of water flow through the heads of respiring swellsharks. Swellsharks were implanted with pressure transducers to determine the pattern and magnitude of pressures generated within the buccal and parabranchial (gill) cavities during respiration. Pressure traces revealed extended periods of pressure reversal during the respiratory cycle. Further, impedance data suggested that pressures within the buccal and parabranchial cavities were not generated by the cyclic opening and closing of the jaws and gills in the manner previously suggested by Hughes. Thus, the classic model needs to be re-evaluated to determine its general applicability. Two alternative models for pressure patterns and their mechanism of generation during respiration are provided. The first depicts a double-reversal scenario common in the swellshark whereby pressures are reversed following both of the pump stages (the suction pump and the pressure pump) rather than after the pressure-pump stage only. The second model describes a scenario in which the suction pump is insufficient for generating a positive pressure differential across the gills; thus, a pressure reversal persists throughout this phase of respiration. Kinematic analysis based on high-speed video footage and dye studies, however, suggested that during respiration, as opposed to feeding, distinct flow reversals do not result from the pressure reversals. Thus, water is probably pooling around the gill filaments during the long periods of pressure reversal. (+info)
Jaw reflexes evoked by mechanical stimulation of teeth in humans.
Jaw reflexes evoked by mechanical stimulation of teeth in humans. The reflex response of jaw muscles to mechanical stimulation of an upper incisor tooth was investigated using the surface electromyogram (SEMG) of the masseter muscle and the bite force. With a slowly rising stimulus, the reflex response obtained on the masseter SEMG showed three different patterns of reflex responses; sole excitation, sole inhibition, and inhibition followed by excitation. Simultaneously recorded bite force, however, exhibited mainly one reflex response pattern, a decrease followed by an increase in the net closing force. A rapidly rising stimulus also induced several different patterns of reflex responses in the masseter SEMG. When the simultaneously recorded bite force was analyzed, however, there was only one reflex response pattern, a decrease in the net closing force. Therefore, the reflex change in the masseter muscle is not a good representative of the net reflex response of all jaw muscles to mechanical tooth stimulation. The net response is best expressed by the averaged bite force. The averaged bite force records showed that when the stimulus force was developing rapidly, the periodontal reflex could reduce the bite force and hence protect the teeth and supporting tissues from damaging forces. It also can increase the bite force; this might help keep food between the teeth if the change in force rate is slow, especially when the initial bite force is low. (+info)