(1/378) Peripheral hepatojejunostomy as palliative treatment for irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept of surgical decompression of the biliary tree by peripheral hepatojejunostomy for palliative treatment of jaundice in patients with irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Jaundice, pruritus, and recurrent cholangitis are major clinical complications in patients with obstructive cholestasis resulting from malignant tumors of the liver hilum. Methods for palliative treatment include endoscopic stenting, percutaneous transhepatic drainage, and surgical decompression. The palliative treatment of choice should be safe, effective, and comfortable for the patient. METHODS: In a retrospective study, surgical technique, perioperative complications, and efficacy of treatment were analyzed for 56 patients who had received a peripheral hepatojejunostomy between 1982 and 1997. Laparotomy in all of these patients had been performed as an attempt for curative resection. RESULTS: Hepatojejunostomy was exclusively palliative in 50 patients and was used for bridging to resection or transplantation in 7. Anastomosis was bilateral in 36 patients and unilateral in 20. The 1-month mortality in the study group was 9%; median survival was 6 months. In patients surviving >1 month, a marked and persistent decrease in cholestasis was achieved in 87%, although complete return to normal was rare. Among the patients with a marked decrease in cholestasis, 72% had no or only mild clinical symptoms such as fever or jaundice. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral hepatojejunostomy is a feasible and reasonably effective palliative treatment for patients with irresectable tumors of the liver hilum. In patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for attempted curative resection, this procedure frequently leads to persistent-although rarely complete-decompression of the biliary tree. In a few cases it may also be used for bridging to transplantation or liver resection after relief of cholestasis. (+info)
(2/378) Liver disease in pregnancy.
Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. Chronic hepatitis B or C infections may be transmitted to neonates; however, hepatitis B virus transmission is effectively prevented with perinatal hepatitis B vaccination and prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. Cholelithiasis occurs in 6 percent of pregnancies; complications can safely be treated with surgery. Women with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis exhibit a higher risk of fetal loss during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is associated with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction and rupture. These rare diseases result in increased maternal and fetal mortality. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses. Therapy with penicillamine, trientine, prednisone or azathioprine can be safely continued during pregnancy. (+info)
(3/378) Case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum.
We report a case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum in a 19-year-old male who had developed high fever, jaundice, and hepatomegaly after acupuncture therapy with small gold needles. Anaerobic, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli were isolated from his blood and finally identified as B. longum. He recovered completely after treatment with ticarcillin and metronidazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of incidental sepsis caused by B. longum. (+info)
(4/378) The natural history of histologically proved drug induced liver disease.
BACKGROUND: The long term outcome of drug related liver disease is unknown. AIMS: To study the natural history of histologically proved drug induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: 110 patients with liver biopsies coded either as drug induced liver disease or hepatitis/cholestasis of unknown aetiology were identified from hospital records 1978-1996. Review of case notes and histology identified 44 patients with definite drug induced hepatotoxicity. Forty surviving patients were invited to attend a follow up clinic. History, examination, full liver screen, and isotope and ultrasound liver scans were repeated in all patients. Repeat liver biopsies were offered to patients with abnormal liver tests. RESULTS: Presentation at index biopsy was jaundice in 24 patients, abnormal liver tests in 17, and hepatic failure in three. Antibiotics (n=13) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=11) were the most common drugs implicated. Initial histology showed acute hepatitis in six, chronic hepatitis in 20, and cholestasis in 18. At 1-19 years (median 5 years) follow up, 13/33 (39%) patients had persistent significant abnormalities in their liver blood tests and/or scans. Three of the five repeat liver biopsies performed showed significant abnormalities. Factors predicting persistence or development of chronic liver disease were fibrosis and continued exposure to the drug. CONCLUSIONS: Drugs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal liver function and/or histology, as failure to withdraw the offending drug is associated with a high risk of persistent liver damage. (+info)
(5/378) Biliary obstruction in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: an uncommon diagnosis with specific causes.
Jaundice is a common problem in marrow transplant recipients. The incidence of bile duct obstruction in this setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of biliary obstruction, the causes, and outcomes following marrow transplant. Consecutive cases were reviewed at two major transplant centers in the United States from 1969 to 1996 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and 1989 to 1996 at the City of Hope National Medical Center. Nine cases of biliary obstruction were identified as a cause of jaundice in 7412 marrow transplant recipients, an incidence of 0.12%. The presentation was bimodal, with seven cases occurring prior to day 100 and two occurring 2 to 4 years after transplantation. The age distribution was 15 to 50 years and all patients had received allogeneic transplants. The causes of obstruction included gallbladder sludge (n=1), a duodenal hematoma (n=1), choledocholithiasis with biliary pancreatitis (n=1), bile duct infection (n=2), recurrent malignancy (n=1), choledocholithiasis associated with a benign stricture (n=1), Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disorder (n=1), and a benign stricture of unknown etiology (n=1). Biliary obstruction is a rare cause of jaundice in the post-transplant period. The presentation was similar to that of other post-transplant hepatobiliary problems, but with disparate causes. (+info)
(6/378) Neonatal bilirubin production, reflected by carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations, in Down's syndrome.
AIM: To determine whether increased bilirubin production, reflected by blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) values, is responsible for hyperbilirubinaemia in cases of Down's syndrome with no obvious cause for excessive jaundice. METHODS: Blood was sampled on the third day of life for COHb, total haemoglobin (tHb), and serum total bilirubin, from 19 consecutively born neonates with Down's syndrome (a subset of 34 term babies), who had developed hyperbilirubinaemia (serum bilirubin >/= 256 micromol), and from 32 term controls. COHb, measured by gas chromatography, was corrected for inspired CO (COHbc) and expressed as a percentage of tHb. RESULTS: Significantly more of the Down's syndrome subset developed hyperbilirubinaemia than the controls (10/19 (52%) vs 7/32 (22%), relative risk 2.4, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10 to 5.26). Third day serum bilirubin values (mean (SD)) were higher in the Down's syndrome neonates than in controls (214 +- 63 micromol/l vs 172 +- 54 micromol/l, respectively, p=0.015). Mean (SD) COHbc values were significantly higher in the Down's syndrome neonates than in controls (0.92 +- 0. 24% vs 0.63 +- 0.17%; p<0.0001). However, Down's syndrome neonates who became hyperbilirubinaemic had similar COHbc values to those who did not (0.87 +- 0.26% and 0.95 +- 0.23%, respectively). These values contrast with those of the controls, in whom a significant increase in COHbc was associated with hyperbilirubinaemia (0.74 +- 0. 15% vs 0.60 +- 0.16%, respectively; p<0.05). tHb values were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Down's syndrome neonates had a greater risk of hyperbilirubinaemia, and higher COHbc values, than controls. However, excessive bilirubin production could not be exclusively responsible for the hyperbilirubinaemia. By inference, decreased bilirubin elimination probably plays a greater part in its pathogenesis than in controls. Down's syndrome neonates may have abnormal erythropoiesis, leading to increased haem turnover. (+info)
(7/378) Determination of the sum of bilirubin sugar conjugates in plasma by bilirubin oxidase.
BACKGROUND: A reliable indicator of cholestasis is the presence of abnormal concentrations of bilirubin mono- and diglucuronide [conjugated bilirubin (CB)] in blood. A routine assay of CB is available only to those who possess a certain type of clinical analyzer. We describe a two-point manual method for CB that could be adapted as a rate assay to automated clinical analyzers. METHODS: The measurement of CB is based on its oxidation to biliverdin by bilirubin oxidase. The resulting decrease in absorbance at 460 nm is proportional to the CB concentration. The assay is calibrated with solutions of ditaurobilirubin in human serum. RESULTS: Under the conditions of the assay (0.1 mol/L glycine buffer, pH 10.0; reaction time, 2 min), only 5% of unconjugated bilirubin is oxidized and delta-bilirubin is not oxidized at all. Results obtained with the bilirubin oxidase method agreed well with those obtained by HPLC. The long-term CVs at CB concentrations of 6 and 63.4 mg/L were 20% and 2.6%, respectively. The reference values, established by analyzing 51 plasma specimens from healthy adults, were 0.0-1.2 mg/L, with a mean value of 0.2 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method for CB has good analytical specificity and obviates the requirement for HPLC or a dry chemistry analyzer. The measurement of CB in blood is superior to the measurement of direct bilirubin because an abnormal concentration of direct bilirubin does not necessarily indicate the presence of cholestasis. (+info)
(8/378) The prognostic and pathophysiologic role of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in severe malaria.
Pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines were measured on admission in 287 consecutive Vietnamese adults with severe falciparum malaria. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations and the IL-6: IL-10 ratio were significantly higher in patients who died than in survivors (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, hyperparasitemia, jaundice, and shock were all associated independently with raised IL-6, IL-10, and interferon-gamma, and acute renal failure specifically with raised TNF-alpha levels. Cerebral malaria patients, particularly those without other vital organ dysfunction, had significantly lower levels of these cytokines (P=.006), reflecting a more localized pathology. Serial IL-6 and IL-10 measurements made on 43 patients who died and matched survivors indicated a relative deficiency in IL-10 production as death approached. Elevated plasma cytokines in severe malaria are associated with systemic pathologic abnormalities, not cerebral involvement. Both the overall magnitude of the cytokine responses and the eventual imbalance between the pro- and antiinflammatory responses are important determinants of mortality. (+info)