Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy. (+info)
(2/366) Autosomal SCID caused by a point mutation in the N-terminus of Jak3: mapping of the Jak3-receptor interaction domain.
Signaling through the hematopoietic receptors requires activation of receptor-associated Janus (Jak) kinases. For example, Jak1 and Jak3 bind specifically to the IL-2 receptor beta (IL-2Rbeta) and common gamma (gammac) chains, respectively, and initiate biochemical signals critical in controlling immune responses. The region of Jak responsible for receptor interactions, however, is not well characterized. Here we describe a naturally occurring Jak3 mutation from a patient with autosomal severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), where a single amino acid substitution, Y100C, in Janus homology domain 7 (JH7) prevents kinase-receptor interaction. This mutation also results in a loss of IL-2-induced signaling in a B-cell line derived from this patient. Using mutational analysis we have identified a region of Jak3, including portions of JH6 and JH7, that is sufficient for kinase-receptor contact and show that this segment interacts with the proline-rich Box1 region of the receptor. Furthermore, a Jak3-Jak1 chimera containing only the JH6 and JH7 domains of Jak3 interacts with gammac and can reconstitute IL-2-dependent responses, including receptor phosphorylation and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5b. Our results suggest that the N-terminus of Jak kinases is critical for receptor binding, and is therefore likely to determine specificity of Jak kinase-receptor interactions. (+info)
(3/366) Downregulation of JAK3 protein levels in T lymphocytes by prostaglandin E2 and other cyclic adenosine monophosphate-elevating agents: impact on interleukin-2 receptor signaling pathway.
The Janus kinase, JAK3 plays an important role in interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent signal transduction and proliferation of T lymphocytes. Our findings show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can inhibit upregulation of JAK3 protein in naive T cells and can downregulate its expression in primed cells. Reduction in JAK3 was selective because expression of other tyrosine kinases (JAK1, p56(lck), and p59(fyn)) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5, which are linked to IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling pathway, were not affected. Inhibition of JAK3 may be controlled by intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, as forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase and dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), a membrane permeable analogue of cAMP suppressed JAK3 expression. Moreover, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase, potentiated PGE2-induced suppression of JAK3. In naive T cells, but not primed T cells, PGE2 and other cAMP elevating agents also caused a modest reduction in surface expression of the common gamma chain (gammac) that associates with JAK3. The absence of JAK3, but not IL-2R in T cells correlated with impaired IL-2-dependent signal transduction and proliferation. The alteration in IL-2 signaling included decreased tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of STAT5 and poor induction of the c-Myc and c-Jun pathways. In contrast, IL-2-dependent induction of Bcl-2 was unaffected. These findings suggest that suppression of JAK3 levels may represent one mechanism by which PGE2 and other cAMP elevating agents can inhibit T-cell proliferation. (+info)
(4/366) Cutting edge: SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of IL-4 signal transduction.
IL-4 is an important regulator of the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of many hematopoetic cells. Many of these biological effects result from the activation of Janus kinases (JAK)1 and JAK3 and the transcription factor Stat6. Recent data suggest that members of the SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling) family of proteins can inhibit JAK-STAT signaling. We have examined the ability of SOCS family members to suppress IL-4 signaling, and we have found that SOCS-1 potently inhibits the activation of JAK1 kinase and Stat6 in response to IL-4. Furthermore, SOCS-1 can inhibit the induction of CD23 expression by IL-4. SOCS-2 does not inhibit induction of signaling by IL-4, while inhibition of IL-4 signaling by SOCS-3 can be detected in transient transfection systems, but not in stable cell lines. These studies implicate SOCS-1 in modulation of IL-4 signaling and suggest that SOCS-1 may play a role in regulating the immune response. (+info)
(5/366) JAK3, STAT, and MAPK signaling pathways as novel molecular targets for the tyrphostin AG-490 regulation of IL-2-mediated T cell response.
AG-490 is a member of the tyrphostin family of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. While AG-490 has been considered to be a Janus kinase (JAK)2-specific inhibitor, these conclusions were primarily drawn from acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells that lack readily detectable levels of JAK3. In the present study, evidence is provided that clearly demonstrates AG-490 potently suppresses IL-2-induced T cell proliferation, a non-JAK2-dependent signal, in a dose-dependent manner in T cell lines D10 and CTLL-2. AG-490 blocked JAK3 activation and phosphorylation of its downstream counterpart substrates, STATs. Inhibition of JAK3 by AG-490 also compromised the Shc/Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways as measured by phosphorylation of Shc and extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). AG-490 effectively inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activities of several transcription factors including STAT1, -3, -5a, and -5b and activating protein-1 (AP-1) as judged by Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These data suggest that AG-490 is a potent inhibitor of the JAK3/STAT, JAK3/AP-1, and JAK3/MAPK pathways and their cellular consequences. Taken together, these findings support the notion that AG-490 possesses previously unrecognized clinical potential as an immunotherapeutic drug due to its inhibitory effects on T cell-derived signaling pathways. (+info)
(6/366) Latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus interacts with JAK3 and activates STAT proteins.
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) acts like a permanently activated receptor of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily and is absolutely required for B cell immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus. Molecular and biochemical approaches demonstrated that LMP1 usurps cellular signaling pathways resulting in the induction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 via two C-terminal activating regions. We demonstrate here that a third region encompassing a proline rich sequence within the 33 bp repetitive stretch of LMP1's C-terminus is required for the activation of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3). The interaction of LMP1 and JAK3 leads to the enhanced tyrosine auto/transphosphorylation of JAK3 within minutes after crosslinking of a conditional NGF-R:LMP1 chimera and is a prerequisite for the activation of STAT transcription factors. These results reveal a novel activating region in the LMP1 C-terminus and identify the JAK/STAT pathway as a target of this viral integral membrane protein in B cells. (+info)
(7/366) SOCS-3 is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to interleukin-2 and suppresses STAT5 phosphorylation and lymphocyte proliferation.
Members of the recently discovered SOCS/CIS/SSI family have been proposed as regulators of cytokine signaling, and while targets and mechanisms have been suggested for some family members, the precise role of these proteins remains to be defined. To date no SOCS proteins have been specifically implicated in interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling in T cells. Here we report SOCS-3 expression in response to IL-2 in both T-cell lines and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. SOCS-3 protein was detectable as early as 30 min following IL-2 stimulation, while CIS was seen only at low levels after 2 h. Unlike CIS, SOCS-3 was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to IL-2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of SOCS-3 was observed upon coexpression with Jak1 and Jak2 but only weakly with Jak3. In these experiments, SOCS-3 associated with Jak1 and inhibited Jak1 phosphorylation, and this inhibition was markedly enhanced by the presence of IL-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2Rbeta). Moreover, following IL-2 stimulation of T cells, SOCS-3 was able to interact with the IL-2 receptor complex, and in particular tyrosine phosphorylated Jak1 and IL-2Rbeta. Additionally, in lymphocytes expressing SOCS-3 but not CIS, IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5b was markedly reduced, while there was only a weak effect on IL-3-mediated STAT5b tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, proliferation induced by both IL-2- and IL-3 was significantly inhibited in the presence of SOCS-3. The findings suggest that when SOCS-3 is rapidly induced by IL-2 in T cells, it acts to inhibit IL-2 responses in a classical negative feedback loop. (+info)
(8/366) Tyrphostin AG-490 inhibits cytokine-mediated JAK3/STAT5a/b signal transduction and cellular proliferation of antigen-activated human T cells.
Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase required for T cell development and activated by cytokines that utilize the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor common gamma chain (gamma(c)). Genetic inactivation of JAK3 is manifested as severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) in humans and mice. These findings have suggested that JAK3 represents a pharmacological target to control certain lymphoid-derived diseases. Here we provide novel evidence that AG-490 potently inhibits the autokinase activity of JAK3 and tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b (STAT5a/b). Similar inhibitory effects were observed with other cytokines that use gamma(c). AG-490 also inhibited IL-2-mediated proliferative growth in human T cells with an IC50) = 25 microM that was partially recoverable. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inhibitor prevented tetanus toxoid antigen-specific T cell proliferation and expansion but failed to block activation of Zap70 or p56Lck after anti-CD3 stimulation of human T cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that AG-490 inhibits the JAK3-mediated Type II signaling pathway but not the T cell receptor-derived Type I pathway and possesses therapeutic potential for T cell-derived pathologies such as graft-versus-host disease, allergy, and autoimmune disorders. (+info)