(1/684) Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase functions as a negative regulator of the interferon-stimulated Jak/STAT pathway.
Shp-2 is an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase. Although the mechanism remains to be defined, substantial experimental data suggest that Shp-2 is primarily a positive regulator in cell growth and development. We present evidence here that Shp-2, while acting to promote mitogenic signals, also functions as a negative effector in interferon (IFN)-induced growth-inhibitory and apoptotic pathways. Treatment of mouse fibroblast cells lacking a functional Shp-2 with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma resulted in an augmented suppression of cell viability compared to that of wild-type cells. To dissect the molecular mechanism, we examined IFN-induced activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a specific DNA probe (hSIE). The amounts of STAT proteins bound to hSIE upon IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma stimulation were significantly increased in Shp-2(-/-) cells. Consistently, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Stat1 upon IFN-gamma treatment and, to a lesser extent, upon IFN-alpha stimulation were markedly elevated in mutant cells. Furthermore, IFN-gamma induced a higher level of caspase 1 expression in Shp-2(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells. Reintroduction of wild-type Shp-2 protein reversed the hypersensitivity of Shp-2(-/-) fibroblasts to the cytotoxic effect of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Excessive activation of STATs by IFNs was also diminished in mutant cells in which Shp-2 had been reintroduced. Together, these results establish that Shp-2 functions as a negative regulator of the Jak/STAT pathway. We propose that Shp-2 acts to promote cell growth and survival through two mechanisms, i.e., the stimulation of growth factor-initiated mitogenic pathways and the suppression of cytotoxic effect elicited by cytokines, such as IFNs. (+info)
(2/684) Similarities and differences in RANTES- and (AOP)-RANTES-triggered signals: implications for chemotaxis.
Chemokines are a family of proinflammatory cytokines that attract and activate specific types of leukocytes. Chemokines mediate their effects via interaction with seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Using CCR5-transfected HEK-293 cells, we show that both the CCR5 ligand, RANTES, as well as its derivative, aminooxypentane (AOP)- RANTES, trigger immediate responses such as Ca2+ influx, receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and Galphai as well as JAK/STAT association to the receptor. In contrast to RANTES, (AOP)-RANTES is unable to trigger late responses, as measured by the association of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the chemokine receptor complex, impaired cell polarization required for migration, or chemotaxis. The results are discussed in the context of the dissociation of the late signals, provoked by the chemokines required for cell migration, from early signals. (+info)
(3/684) TGF-beta does not inhibit IL-12- and IL-2-induced activation of Janus kinases and STATs.
The immune system is an important target for the cytokine TGF-beta1, whose actions on lymphocytes are largely inhibitory. TGF-beta has been reported to inhibit IL-12- and IL-2-induced cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production by T cells and NK cells; however, the mechanisms of inhibition have not been clearly defined. It has been suggested by some studies that TGF-beta blocks cytokine-induced Janus kinase (JAK) and STAT activation, as in the case of IL-2. In contrast, other studies with cytokines like IFN-gamma have not found such an inhibition. The effect of TGF-beta on the IL-12-signaling pathway has not been addressed. We examined this and found that TGF-beta1 did not have any effect on IL-12-induced phosphorylation of JAK2, TYK2, and STAT4 although TGF-beta1 inhibited IL-2- and IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production. Similarly, but in contrast to previous reports, we found that TGF-beta1 did not inhibit IL-2-induced phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK3, and STAT5A. Furthermore, gel shift analysis showed that TGF-beta1 did not prevent activated STAT4 and STAT5A from binding to DNA. Our results demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta on IL-2- and IL-12-induced biological activities are not attributable to inhibition of activation of JAKs and STATs. Rather, our data suggest the existence of alternative mechanisms of inhibition by TGF-beta. (+info)
(4/684) Autosomal SCID caused by a point mutation in the N-terminus of Jak3: mapping of the Jak3-receptor interaction domain.
Signaling through the hematopoietic receptors requires activation of receptor-associated Janus (Jak) kinases. For example, Jak1 and Jak3 bind specifically to the IL-2 receptor beta (IL-2Rbeta) and common gamma (gammac) chains, respectively, and initiate biochemical signals critical in controlling immune responses. The region of Jak responsible for receptor interactions, however, is not well characterized. Here we describe a naturally occurring Jak3 mutation from a patient with autosomal severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), where a single amino acid substitution, Y100C, in Janus homology domain 7 (JH7) prevents kinase-receptor interaction. This mutation also results in a loss of IL-2-induced signaling in a B-cell line derived from this patient. Using mutational analysis we have identified a region of Jak3, including portions of JH6 and JH7, that is sufficient for kinase-receptor contact and show that this segment interacts with the proline-rich Box1 region of the receptor. Furthermore, a Jak3-Jak1 chimera containing only the JH6 and JH7 domains of Jak3 interacts with gammac and can reconstitute IL-2-dependent responses, including receptor phosphorylation and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5b. Our results suggest that the N-terminus of Jak kinases is critical for receptor binding, and is therefore likely to determine specificity of Jak kinase-receptor interactions. (+info)
(5/684) Lineage-specific activation of STAT3 by interferon-gamma in human neutrophils.
Binding of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to its heterodimeric receptor induces activation of the tyrosine kinases JAK1 and JAK2 followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1alpha. Selective activation of STAT1alpha at the IFN-gamma receptor is achieved by specific interaction between a cytosolic tyrosine motif including Y440 in the IFN-gamma receptor alpha-chain and the SH2 domain of STAT1alpha. We demonstrate that, in addition to STAT1alpha, STAT3 is also activated by IFN-gamma in human neutrophils. The activation of STAT3 was not found in human eosinophils, monocytes, and HL-60 cells, although the STAT3 protein was expressed in these cells. The cell type-specific activation of STAT3 by IFN-gamma was also observed in neutrophils that are differentiated in vitro from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. These results indicate that a single cytokine receptor can activate different STAT family members in a cell-specific manner, which might result in cell-specific gene transcription. (+info)
(6/684) Rational design and synthesis of a novel anti-leukemic agent targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), LFM-A13 [alpha-cyano-beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-N-(2, 5-dibromophenyl)propenamide].
In a systematic effort to design potent inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic tyrosine kinase BTK (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) as anti-leukemic agents with apoptosis-promoting and chemosensitizing properties, we have constructed a three-dimensional homology model of the BTK kinase domain. Our modeling studies revealed a distinct rectangular binding pocket near the hinge region of the BTK kinase domain with Leu460, Tyr476, Arg525, and Asp539 residues occupying the corners of the rectangle. The dimensions of this rectangle are approximately 18 x 8 x 9 x 17 A, and the thickness of the pocket is approximately 7 A. Advanced docking procedures were employed for the rational design of leflunomide metabolite (LFM) analogs with a high likelihood to bind favorably to the catalytic site within the kinase domain of BTK. The lead compound LFM-A13, for which we calculated a Ki value of 1.4 microM, inhibited human BTK in vitro with an IC50 value of 17.2 +/- 0.8 microM. Similarly, LFM-A13 inhibited recombinant BTK expressed in a baculovirus expression vector system with an IC50 value of 2.5 microM. The energetically favorable position of LFM-A13 in the binding pocket is such that its aromatic ring is close to Tyr476, and its substituent group is sandwiched between residues Arg525 and Asp539. In addition, LFM-A13 is capable of favorable hydrogen bonding interactions with BTK via Asp539 and Arg525 residues. Besides its remarkable potency in BTK kinase assays, LFM-A13 was also discovered to be a highly specific inhibitor of BTK. Even at concentrations as high as 100 micrograms/ml (approximately 278 microM), this novel inhibitor did not affect the enzymatic activity of other protein tyrosine kinases, including JAK1, JAK3, HCK, epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, and insulin receptor kinase. In accordance with the anti-apoptotic function of BTK, treatment of BTK+ B-lineage leukemic cells with LFM-A13 enhanced their sensitivity to ceramide- or vincristine-induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, LFM-A13 is the first BTK-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the first anti-leukemic agent targeting BTK. (+info)
(7/684) Cutting edge: SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of IL-4 signal transduction.
IL-4 is an important regulator of the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of many hematopoetic cells. Many of these biological effects result from the activation of Janus kinases (JAK)1 and JAK3 and the transcription factor Stat6. Recent data suggest that members of the SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling) family of proteins can inhibit JAK-STAT signaling. We have examined the ability of SOCS family members to suppress IL-4 signaling, and we have found that SOCS-1 potently inhibits the activation of JAK1 kinase and Stat6 in response to IL-4. Furthermore, SOCS-1 can inhibit the induction of CD23 expression by IL-4. SOCS-2 does not inhibit induction of signaling by IL-4, while inhibition of IL-4 signaling by SOCS-3 can be detected in transient transfection systems, but not in stable cell lines. These studies implicate SOCS-1 in modulation of IL-4 signaling and suggest that SOCS-1 may play a role in regulating the immune response. (+info)
(8/684) Replication of Toxoplasma gondii, but not Trypanosoma cruzi, is regulated in human fibroblasts activated with gamma interferon: requirement of a functional JAK/STAT pathway.
To study the role of tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (INDO) in the control of Trypanosoma cruzi or Toxoplasma gondii replication, we used human fibroblasts and a fibrosarcoma cell line (2C4). The cells were cultured in the presence or absence of recombinant gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) and/or recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) for 24 h and were then infected with either T. cruzi or T. gondii. Intracellular parasite replication was evaluated 24 or 48 h after infection. Treatment with rIFN-gamma and/or rTNF-alpha had no inhibitory effect on T. cruzi replication. In contrast, 54, 73, or 30% inhibition of T. gondii replication was observed in the cells treated with rIFN-gamma alone, rIFN-gamma plus rTNF-alpha, or TNF-alpha alone, respectively. The replication of T. gondii tachyzoites in cytokine-activated cells was restored by the addition of extra tryptophan to the culture medium. Similarly, T. gondii tachyzoites transfected with bacterial tryptophan synthase were not sensitive to the microbiostatic effect of rIFN-gamma. We also investigated the basis of the cytokine effect on parasite replication by using the three mutant cell lines B3, B9, and B10 derived from 2C4 and expressing defective STAT1alpha (signal transducer and activator of transcription), JAK2 (Janus family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), or JAK1, respectively, three important elements of a signaling pathway triggered by rIFN-gamma. We found that rTNF-alpha was able to induce low levels expression of INDO mRNA in the parental cell line, as well as the cell line lacking functional JAK2. In contrast to the parental cell line (2C4), rIFN-gamma was not able to induce the expression of INDO mRNA or microbiostatic activity in any of the mutant cell lines. These findings indicate the essential requirement of the JAK/STAT pathway for the induction of high levels of INDO mRNA, tryptophan degradation, and the anti-Toxoplasma activity inside human nonprofessional phagocytic cells. (+info)