Standardized comparison of glucose intolerance in west African-origin populations of rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica, and Caribbean migrants to Britain.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance in genetically similar African-origin populations within Cameroon and from Jamaica and Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects studied were from rural and urban Cameroon or from Jamaica, or were Caribbean migrants, mainly Jamaican, living in Manchester, England. Sampling bases included a local census of adults aged 25-74 years in Cameroon, districts statistically representative in Jamaica, and population registers in Manchester. African-Caribbean ethnicity required three grandparents of this ethnicity. Diabetes was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1985 criteria using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (2-h > or = 11.1 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment) and by the new American Diabetes Association criteria (fasting glucose > or = 7.0 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment). RESULTS: For men, mean BMIs were greatest in urban Cameroon and Manchester (25-27 kg/m2); in women, these were similarly high in urban Cameroon and Jamaica and highest in Manchester (27-28 kg/m2). The age-standardized diabetes prevalence using WHO criteria was 0.8% in rural Cameroon, 2.0% in urban Cameroon, 8.5% in Jamaica, and 14.6% in Manchester, with no difference between sexes (men: 1.1%, 1.0%, 6.5%, 15.3%, women: 0.5%, 2.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%), all tests for trend P < 0.001. Impaired glucose tolerance was more frequent in Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: The transition in glucose intolerance from Cameroon to Jamaica and Britain suggests that environment determines diabetes prevalence in these populations of similar genetic origin. (+info)
Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica.
Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively. (+info)
Jamaica's measles elimination experience.
OBJECTIVES: This article describes the effort to eliminate measles from Jamaica and its impact on measles incidence. METHODS: In addition to routine measles vaccination, the Jamaican Ministry of Health implemented a strategy of a 1-time-only catch-up vaccination campaign, conducted in 1991, and periodic follow-up campaigns, the first of which occurred in 1995. RESULTS: Since 1991, despite careful surveillance, no serologically confirmed indigenous cases of measles have occurred in Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: Measles virus circulation has been interrupted in Jamaica. The Jamaican experience provides further evidence that global measles eradication is achievable. (+info)
Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.
Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified. (+info)
Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in a Jamaican community.
We researched epidemiologic associations between environmental and demographic factors and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a suburban Jamaican community. Using a clustered sampling technique, 22 domestic yards enclosing 60 separate households were randomly selected from a local community. All household members (n = 346) were invited to participate following informed consent; the overall compliance rate was 58.9%. A commercial enzyme immunoassay (HMaCAP) was used to detect IgG antibodies raised against H. pylori. Environmental and demographic information was obtained by questionnaire. The seroprevalence of H. pylori was 69.9% (n = 202). Analysis of the independent variables revealed three major components: Component 1 described, collectively, good personal hygiene and sanitation, indoor water supply and absence of straying animals in the peridomestic area; Component 2 included older age, good personal hygiene and large yard size; Component 3 the presence of domestic animals (cats and dogs) and, again, large yard size. These three complexes explained 42.2% of the variability in the data set. Logistic regression showed that Components 2 and 3 were independently associated with H. pylori seropositivity, indicating that a combination of demographic, environmental and zoonotic factors is involved in the spread of H. pylori infections at the tropical community level. (+info)
High prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women presenting in different clinical settings in Jamaica: implications for control strategies.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk factors in women attending family planning, gynaecology, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Jamaica. METHODS: Endocervical specimens from 645 women including 238 family planning, 170 gynaecology, and 237 STD clinic attendees were examined for C trachomatis using a direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and culture. Investigations were carried out for the presence of other STD pathogens and demographic, behavioural, historical, and clinical data recorded for each participant. RESULTS: The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 35%, 47%, and 55% in family planning, gynaecology, and STD clinic clients, respectively. The performance of the DFA was comparable to that of culture in screening for C trachomatis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent risk factors for C trachomatis infection were non-barrier contraceptive methods in family planning clients (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.9; p = 0.0110), cervical ectopy in gynaecology clients (OR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.4-10.6; p = 0.0076) and concomitant Trichomonas vaginalis infection in STD clients (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.8-6.8; p = 0.003). Age, number of sex partners, and reason for visit were not identified as risk factors for C trachomatis infection. CONCLUSIONS: Consistently high prevalence of C trachomatis infection occurs in Jamaican women. Universal screening or presumptive treatment should be evaluated as prevention and control measures for C trachomatis infection in this population where all women appear to be at risk. (+info)
Criteria for clinical audit of the quality of hospital-based obstetric care in developing countries.
Improving the quality of obstetric care is an urgent priority in developing countries, where maternal mortality remains high. The feasibility of criterion-based clinical audit of the assessment and management of five major obstetric complications is being studied in Ghana and Jamaica. In order to establish case definitions and clinical audit criteria, a systematic review of the literature was followed by three expert panel meetings. A modified nominal group technique was used to develop consensus among experts on a final set of case definitions and criteria. Five main obstetric complications were selected and definitions were agreed. The literature review led to the identification of 67 criteria, and the panel meetings resulted in the modification and approval of 37 of these for the next stage of audit. Criterion-based audit, which has been devised and tested primarily in industrialized countries, can be adapted and applied where resources are poorer. The selection of audit criteria for such settings requires local expert opinion to be considered in addition to research evidence, so as to ensure that the criteria are realistic in relation to conditions in the field. Practical methods for achieving this are described in the present paper. (+info)
Validating a method of psychiatric case identification in Jamaica.
There is an urgent need for simple, reliable instruments for psychiatric research in developing countries. Limited resources, however, make the development of instruments de novo difficult. A simple method for establishing the validity of a method of case identification in a new population is described. A shortened version of a standard general health questionnaire was shown to be an effective method of identifying non-psychotic disorders in Jamaica, subject to a recalibration. (+info)