Direct MS-MS identification of isoxsuprine-glucuronide in post-administration equine urine. (1/14)

Isoxsuprine is routinely recovered from enzymatically-hydrolyzed, post-administration urine samples as parent isoxsuprine in equine forensic science. However, the specific identity of the material in horse urine from which isoxsuprine is recovered has never been established, although it has long been assumed to be a glucuronide conjugate (or conjugates) of isoxsuprine. Using ESI/MS/MS positive mode as an analytical tool, urine samples collected 4-8 h after isoxsuprine administration yielded a major peak at m/z 554 that was absent from control samples and resisted fragmentation to daughter ions. Titration of this material with increasing concentrations of sodium acetate yielded m/z peaks consistent with the presence of monosodium and disodium isoxsuprine-glucuronide complexes, suggesting that the starting material was a dipotassium-isoxsuprine-glucuronide complex. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry negative mode disclosed the presence of a m/z 476 peak that declined following enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted in the concomitant appearance of peaks at m/z 300 and 175. The resulting peaks were consistent with the presence of isoxsuprine (m/z 300) and a glucuronic acid residue (m/z 175). Examination of the daughter ion spectrum of this putative isoxsuprine-glucuronide m/z 476 peak showed overlap of many peaks with those of similar spectra of authentic morphine-3- and morphine-6-glucuronides, suggesting they were derived from glucuronic acid conjugation. These data suggest that isoxsuprine occurs in post-administration urine samples as an isoxsuprine-glucuronide conjugate and also, under some circumstances, as an isoxsuprine-glucuronide-dipotassium complex.  (+info)

A GC-MS method for the determination of isoxsuprine in biological fluids of the horse utilizing electron impact ionization. (2/14)

Isoxsuprine is used to treat navicular disease and other lower-limb problems in the horse. Isoxsuprine is regulated as a class 4 compound by the Association of Racing Commissioners, International (ARCI) and, thus, requires regulatory monitoring. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method utilizing electron impact ionization was developed and validated for the quantitation of isoxsuprine in equine plasma or equine urine. The method utilized robotic solid-phase extraction and tri-methyl silyl ether products of derivatization. Products were bis-trimethylsilyl (TMS) isoxsuprine and tris-TMS ritodrine, which released intense quantifier ions m/z 178 for isoxsuprine and m/z 236 for ritodrine that were products of C-C cleavage. To our knowledge, this procedure is faster and more sensitive than other methods in the literature. Concentrations in urine and plasma of isoxsuprine were determined from a calibrator curve that was generated along with unknowns. Ritodrine was used as an internal standard and was, therefore, present in all samples, standards, and blanks. Validation data was also collected. The limit of detection of isoxsuprine in plasma was determined to be 2 ng/mL, the limit of quantitation of isoxsuprine in plasma was determined to be < 5 ng/mL. The mean coefficient of determination for the calibrator curves for plasma was 0.9925 +/- 0.0052 and for calibrator curves for urine 0.9904 +/- 0.0075. The recovery efficiencies at concentrations of 50, 200, and 300 ng/mL were 76%, 73%, and 76%, respectively, in plasma and 92%, 89%, and 91% in urine.  (+info)

Desensitization of the beta-adrenoceptor of lymphocytes from normal subjects and patients with phaeochromocytoma: studies in vivo. (3/14)

1 Following the observation that lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness was not depressed in asthmatics treated only with non-adrenergic drugs we have explored the effects of prolonged exposure to beta-adrenoceptor agonists in normal subjects. 2 Treatment with oral salbutamol (12-16 mg/kg/day for 10 days), or with inhaled salbutamol (3000 microgram/day for 8-10 days) resulted in a significant reduction in lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness. 3 A 48 h infusion of isoxsuprine (10 mg/h) resulted in a marked depression of lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness (P less than 0.001). 4 Prolonged elevation of endogenous catecholamines caused by phaeochromocytoma was also associated with a marked depression of lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness (P less than 0.001). 5 There was no evidence that an increase in phosphodiesterase activity could explain the reduced cyclic AMP response. 6 It is concluded that diminished beta-adrenoceptor response occurs as a response to prolonged exposure to beta-adrenoceptor agonists. It is likely that the diminished response seen in asthmatic subjects can be explained on a similar basis and does not indicate an inherent cellular defect. 7 The possible clinical significance of such changes in asthmatics are discussed.  (+info)

In vitro inhibition of breast cancer spheroid-induced lymphendothelial defects resembling intravasation into the lymphatic vasculature by acetohexamide, isoxsuprine, nifedipin and proadifen. (4/14)


Cold injuries in Kashmir, December 1971. (5/14)

A total of 847 cases of cold injury occurred within the short space of 2 weeks during the Indo-Pakistan conflict in Kashmir in December 1971. The management of these cases and their end results are described. A combination of drugs consisting of low-molecular-weight dextran, an anti-inflammatory agent, and a vasodilator was tried with encouraging results. A conservative attitude towards ablation of necrosed tissues paid good dividends.  (+info)

Increased red blood cell deformability due to isoxsuprine administration decreases platelet adherence in a perfusion chamber: a double-blind cross-over study in patients with intermittent claudication. (6/14)

Platelet transport towards the vessel wall is influenced by the hematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) size, and shape. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that RBC deformability may also influence platelet transport. The observation that isoxsuprine, a known vasodilating drug, caused increased RBC deformability in vitro and decreased platelet transport in vitro prompted us to study the effects of this drug in vivo. The study was performed in a double-blind cross-over study of isoxsuprine v placebo in ten patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency. RBC deformability was estimated from viscosity measurements using the blood viscosity equation of Dintenfass and expressed as T value. Platelet transport was studied in an annular perfusion chamber according to Baumgartner. Human umbilical arteries were used as blood vessels. Perfusion studies were performed with whole blood or with RBCs of the patients mixed with normal platelets and plasma at a standardized hematocrit and platelet count. An increase in RBC deformability concomitant with a decrease in platelet adherence was observed in patients on isoxsuprine with a drop in T value of approximately 0.06 (from 0.91 toward 0.86), and a concomitant decrease in platelet adherence of 20% to 40%. These observations differed significantly from the results in the placebo group and showed a significant group-period interaction at the cross-over of medication (analysis of variance). The effects on platelet adherence were observed at high vessel wall shear rate (1,800 s-1) with perfusates consisting of patients' RBCs and donor plasma and platelets at standardized hematocrit and platelet count. No differences were observed under these conditions at a shear rate of 300 s-1. When whole blood of patients was used, nonsignificant effect was observed at shear rates of 300 s-1 and 1,800 s-1. This was probably caused by the added noise due to variations in hematocrit and platelet number. These data demonstrate that isoxsuprine increases RBC deformability, and they suggest the possibility of decreasing platelet-vessel wall interaction in vivo by manipulation of RBC deformability.  (+info)

Premature labour. (7/14)

Prematurity is by far the commonest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The management of premature labour is empirical because little is understood about the mechanism of labour. Effective uterine relaxant drugs have an important, albeit minor role. Phototherapy has reduced the complications of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and the beneficial effect of antepartum corticosteroid therapy in minimizing the risk of respiratory distress syndrome is now convincing. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in premature rupture of the membranes does not alter perinatal mortality, although postpartum maternal morbidity is reduced. The introduction of neonatal intensive care units has improved the survival rate of premature infants. Sound clinical judgement remains the mainstay in the management of premature labour.  (+info)

Isoxsuprine as an oral vasodilator. (8/14)

The effect of isoxsuprine, administered orally as a single 20-mg tablet, was compared with that of a placebo in a double-blind crossover study in 12 volunteers with and in 12 without peripheral vascular disease. Isoxsuprine failed to increase blood flow in the calf, foot or hand, and did not alter blood pressure or heart rate significantly. Claudication time was not prolonged after taking the drug. This study does not support the value of oral administration of isoxsuprine as a peripheral vasodilator.  (+info)