Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.
We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. (+info)
A non-isotopic assay for histone deacetylase activity.
Inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HD) bear great potential as new drugs due to their ability to modulate transcription and to induce apoptosis or differentiation in cancer cells. To study the activity of HD and the effect of potential inhibitors in vitro so far only radio-active assays have existed. For the search of new inhibitors and for the use in HD identification and purification we established a simple, non-radioactive assay that allows screening of large numbers of compounds. The assay is based on an aminocoumarin derivative of an Omega-acetylated lysine as enzyme substrate. (+info)
The retention and distribution by healthy young men of stable isotopes of selenium consumed as selenite, selenate or hydroponically-grown broccoli are dependent on the isotopic form.
Twenty-seven healthy young men were randomly assigned to diets that supplied low (32.6 microg/d) or high (226.5 microg/d) levels of selenium for a 105-d study. After consuming the diets for 85 d, subjects were fed a test meal that contained 74Se in the form of selenite or selenate and 82Se incorporated into hydroponically-raised broccoli. Urine, fecal and blood samples were collected daily. Isotope absorption was not different (P > 0.05) for selenate and Se in broccoli; Se absorption from selenite was highly variable and was not included in statistical analyses. Significantly more isotope was absorbed by subjects fed the high Se diet (P = 0. 015). Urinary isotope excretion was greater when selenate was fed than when broccoli was fed (P = 0.0001), and consequently more Se from broccoli (as compared to selenate) was retained (59.2 +/- 2.4 and 36.4 +/- 4.6% for Se in broccoli and selenate, respectively; P = 0.0001). Despite the higher retention, less isotope from broccoli than from selenate was present in the plasma. Plasma proteins separated by gel permeation chromatography showed that most of the isotopes were distributed between two medium molecular weight peaks. Less isotope was found in plasma proteins of subjects fed the high Se diet, but the form of Se had no effect on isotope distribution. These results show that dietary Se intake alters the retention of stable isotopes of Se and that humans retain and distribute Se from broccoli in a different manner than Se from inorganic salts. (+info)
Mechanism of metabolite transfer in coupled two-enzyme reactions involving aldolase.
Transient-state kinetic experiments and analyses have been performed to examine the validity of hitherto unchallenged evidence proposed to be indicative of a channelled transfer of triose phosphates from aldolase to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results lend no support to such proposals, but show that the kinetic behaviour of the examined aldolase-dehydrogenase reactions is fully consistent with a free-diffusion mechanism of metabolite transfer. (+info)
Synthesis and in vivo murine evaluation of Na4[1-(1'-B10H9)-6-SHB10H8] as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy.
Reaction of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- and the protected thiol anion, [SC(O)OC(CH3)3]-, produces an unexpected isomer of [B20H17SC(O)OC(CH3)3]4- directly and in good yield. The isomer produced under mild conditions is characterized by an apical-apical boron atom intercage connection as well as the location of the thiol substituent on an equatorial belt adjacent to the terminal boron apex. Although the formation of this isomer from nucleophilic attack of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- has not been reported previously, the isomeric assignment has been unambiguously confirmed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 11B NMR spectroscopy. Deprotection of the thiol substituent under acidic conditions produces a protonated intermediate, [B20H18SH]3-, which can be deprotonated with a suitable base to yield the desired product, [B20H17SH]4-. The sodium salt of the resulting [B20H17SH]4- ion has been encapsulated in small, unilamellar liposomes, which are capable of delivering their contents selectively to tumors in vivo, and investigated as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. The biodistribution of boron was determined after intravenous injection of the liposomal suspension into BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinoma. At low injected doses, the tumor boron concentration increased throughout the time-course experiment, resulting in a maximum observed boron concentration of 46.7 micrograms of B per g of tumor at 48 h and a tumor to blood boron ratio of 7.7. The boron concentration obtained in the tumor corresponds to 22.2% injected dose (i.d.) per g of tissue, a value analogous to the most promising polyhedral borane anions investigated for liposomal delivery and subsequent application in boron neutron capture therapy. (+info)
Alterations of intratumoral pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil in head and neck carcinoma during simultaneous radiochemotherapy.
The kinetics of local drug uptake and metabolism of the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been monitored by means of 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 17 patients with neck tumors during concurrent radiochemotherapy. All of the patients underwent an accelerated hyperfractionated, concomitant-boost radiochemotherapy with 5-FU [600 or 1000 mg/m2 of body surface (b.s.)] and carboplatin (70 mg/m2 of b.s.). Serial 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained during and after the administration of 5-FU in a 15-T scanner with the use of a 5-cm diameter surface coil positioned on a cervical lymph node metastasis. Examinations were performed at day 1 of therapy and, in 13 patients, also after 43.5 Gy of irradiation at day 1 of the second chemotherapy cycle. Resonances of 5-FU and the catabolites 5,6-dihydro-5-fluorouracil (DHFU) and alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL) were resolved in the tumor spectra. The median of the 5-FU and FBAL levels was significantly higher (more than 2-fold) at the second compared with the first examination, whereas the level of DHFU did not change. This effect could indicate an increased delivery of 5-FU into the interstitial space of the tumor in the course of the combined treatment, which would result in an enhanced exposure of the tumor cells to the drug. A potential mechanism for synergy between radio- and chemotherapy is discussed, but alternative mechanisms are also being considered. The findings indicate that a method is available to rationally address the design of dosing schedules in concurrent therapy regimens. (+info)
Molybdenum absorption and utilization in humans from soy and kale intrinsically labeled with stable isotopes of molybdenum.
BACKGROUND: Stable-isotope studies of molybdenum metabolism have been conducted in which molybdenum was added to the diet and was assumed to be absorbed and utilized similarly to the molybdenum in foods. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to establish whether the molybdenum in foods is metabolized similarly to molybdenum added to the diet. DESIGN: We first studied whether sufficient amounts of molybdenum stable isotopes could be incorporated into wheat, kale, and soy for use in a human study. Enough molybdenum could be incorporated into soy and kale to study molybdenum absorption and excretion. Two studies were then conducted, one in women and one in men. In the first study, each meal contained approximately 100 microg Mo from soy, kale, and extrinsic molybdenum. In the second study, soy and extrinsic molybdenum were compared; the meal contained approximately 300 microg Mo. RESULTS: In the first study, molybdenum was absorbed equally well from kale and an extrinsic source. However, the molybdenum in soy was less well absorbed than the molybdenum in kale or that added to the diet. In the second study, absorption of molybdenum from soy was less than from the extrinsic label. Urinary excretion of soy molybdenum was also lower than urinary excretion of the extrinsic label, but excretion as a percentage of the absorbed dose was not significantly different between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The molybdenum in soy is less available than molybdenum added to the diet, but the molybdenum in kale is as available as molybdenum added to the diet. Once absorbed, excretion is not significantly different for soy, kale, and extrinsic molybdenum. (+info)
Mass isotopomer distribution analysis at eight years: theoretical, analytic, and experimental considerations.
Mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) is a technique for measuring the synthesis of biological polymers. First developed approximately eight years ago, MIDA has been used for measuring the synthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. The technique involves quantifying by mass spectrometry the relative abundances of molecular species of a polymer differing only in mass (mass isotopomers), after introduction of a stable isotope-labeled precursor. The mass isotopomer pattern, or distribution, is analyzed according to a combinatorial probability model by comparing measured abundances to theoretical distributions predicted from the binomial or multinomial expansion. For combinatorial probabilities to be applicable, a labeled precursor must therefore combine with itself in the form of two or more repeating subunits. MIDA allows dilution in the monomeric (precursor) and polymeric (product) pools to be determined. Kinetic parameters can then be calculated (e.g., replacement rate of the polymer, fractional contribution from the endogenous biosynthetic pathway, absolute rate of biosynthesis). Several issues remain unresolved, however. We consider here the impact of various deviations from the simple combinatorial probability model of biosynthesis and describe the analytic requirements for successful use of MIDA. A formal mathematical algorithm is presented for generating tables and equations (APPENDIX), on the basis of which effects of various confounding factors are simulated. These include variations in natural isotope abundances, isotopic disequilibrium in the precursor pool, more than one biosynthetic precursor pool, incorrect values for number of subunits present, and concurrent measurement of turnover from exogenously labeled polymers. We describe a strategy for testing whether isotopic inhomogeneity (e.g., an isotopic gradient or separate biosynthetic sites) is present in the precursor pool by comparing higher-mass (multiply labeled) to lower-mass (single- and double-labeled) isotopomer patterns. Also, an algebraic correction is presented for calculating fractional synthesis when an incomplete ion spectrum is monitored, and an approach for assessing the sensitivity of biosynthetic parameters to measurement error is described. The different calculation algorithms published for MIDA are compared; all share a common model, use overlapping solutions to computational problems, and generate identical results. Finally, we discuss the major practical issue for using MIDA at present: quantitative inaccuracy of instruments. The nature and causes of analytic inaccuracy, strategies for evaluating instrument performance, and guidelines for optimizing accuracy and reducing impact on biosynthetic parameters are suggested. Adherence to certain analytic guidelines, particularly attention to concentration effects on mass isotopomer ratios and maximizing enrichments in the isotopomers of interest, reduces error. Improving instrument accuracy for quantification of isotopomer ratios is perhaps the highest priority for this field. In conclusion, MIDA remains the "equation for biosynthesis," but attention to potentially confounding factors and analytic performance is required for optimal application. (+info)