(1/831) Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline.
It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa. (+info)
(2/831) Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells.
BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity. (+info)
(3/831) Effect of hypertonicity on augmentation and potentiation and on corresponding quantal parameters of transmitter release.
Augmentation and (posttetanic) potentiation are two of the four components comprising the enhanced release of transmitter following repetitive nerve stimulation. To examine the quantal basis of these components under isotonic and hypertonic conditions, we recorded miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) from isolated frog (Rana pipiens) cutaneous pectoris muscles, before and after repetitive nerve stimulation (40 s at 80 Hz). Continuous recordings were made in low Ca2+ high Mg2+ isotonic Ringer solution, in Ringer that was made hypertonic with 100 mM sucrose, and in wash solution. Estimates were obtained of m (no. of quanta released), n (no. of functional release sites), p (mean probability of release), and vars p (spatial variance in p), using a method that employed MEPP counts. Hypertonicity abolished augmentation without affecting potentiation. There were prolonged poststimulation increases in m, n, and p and a marked but transient increase in vars p in the hypertonic solution. All effects were completely reversed with wash. The time constants of decay for potentiation and for vars p were virtually identical. The results are consistent with the notion that augmentation is caused by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels and that potentiation is due to Na+-induced Ca2+ release from mitochondria. The results also demonstrate the utility of this approach for analyzing the dynamics of quantal transmitter release. (+info)
(4/831) Vasorelaxation and inhibition of the voltage-operated Ca2+ channels by FK506 in the porcine coronary artery.
Using fura-2 fluorometry, the effects of FK506, an immunosuppressant, on changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and tension were investigated in porcine coronary arterial strips. The effects of FK506 on the activity of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels were examined by applying a whole cell patch clamp to the isolated smooth muscle cells of porcine coronary artery. FK506 inhibited the sustained increases in both [Ca2+]i and tension induced by 118 mM K+ depolarization and 100 nM U46619 in a concentration-dependent manner (1-30 microM). The extent of inhibition of the K+-induced contraction was greater than that of the U46619-induced contraction. The increases in [Ca2+]i and tension induced by histamine and endothelin- in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ were also inhibited by 10 microM FK506. FK506 (10 microM) had no effect on Ca2+ release induced by caffeine or by histamine in the Ca2+-free solution. FK506 (10 microM) had no effect on the [Ca2+]i-tension relationships of the contractions induced by cumulative increases of extracellular Ca2+ during K+ depolarization or stimulation with U46619. In the patch clamp experiments, FK506 (30 microM) partially inhibited the inward current induced by depolarization pulse from -80 mV to 0 mV. In conclusion, FK506 induces arterial relaxation by decreasing [Ca2+]i mainly due to the inhibition of the L-type Ca2+ channels, with no effect on the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. (+info)
(5/831) Endogenous pH shifts facilitate spreading depression by effect on NMDA receptors.
Rapid extracellular alkalinizations accompany normal neuronal activity and have been implicated in the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Particularly large alkaline transients also occur at the onset of spreading depression (SD). To test whether these endogenous pH shifts can modulate SD, the alkaline shift was amplified using benzolamide, a poorly permeant inhibitor of interstitial carbonic anhydrase. SD was evoked by microinjection of 1.2 M KCl into the CA1 stratum radiatum of rat hippocampal slices and recorded by a proximal double-barreled pH microelectrode and a distal potential electrode. In Ringer solution of pH 7.1 containing picrotoxin (but not at a bath pH of 7.4), addition of 10 microM benzolamide increased the SD alkaline shift from 0.20 +/- 0.07 to 0.38 +/- 0.17 unit pH (means +/- SE). This was correlated with a significant shortening of the latency and an increase in the conduction velocity by 26 +/- 16%. In the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), benzolamide still amplified the alkaline transient, however, its effect on the SD latency and propagation velocity was abolished. The intrinsic modulation of SD by its alkaline transient may play an important role under focal ischemic conditions by removing the proton block of NMDA receptors where interstitial acidosis would otherwise limit NMDA receptor activity. (+info)
(6/831) Extracellular acidification induces human neutrophil activation.
In the current work, we evaluated the effect of extracellular acidification on neutrophil physiology. Neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered RPMI 1640 medium adjusted to acidic pH values (pH 6.5-7.0) underwent: 1) a rapid transient increase in intracellular free calcium concentration levels; 2) an increase in the forward light scattering properties; and 3) the up-regulation of surface expression of CD18. By contrast, extracellular acidosis was unable to induce neither the production of H2O2 nor the release of myeloperoxidase. Acidic extracellular pH also modulated the functional profile of neutrophils in response to conventional agonists such as FMLP, precipiting immune complexes, and opsonized zymosan. It was found that not only calcium mobilization, shape change response, and up-regulation of CD18 expression but also production of H2O2 and release of myeloperoxidase were markedly enhanced in neutrophils stimulated in acidic pH medium. Moreover, extracellular acidosis significantly delayed neutrophil apoptosis and concomitantly extended neutrophil functional lifespan. Extracellular acidification induced an immediate and abrupt fall in the intracellular pH, which persisted over the 240-s analyzed. A similar abrupt drop in the intracellular pH was detected in cells suspended in bicarbonate-supplemented PBS but not in those suspended in bicarbonate-free PBS. A role for intracellular acidification in neutrophil activation is suggested by the fact that only neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered media (i.e., RPMI 1640 and bicarbonate-supplemented PBS) underwent significant shape changes in response to extracellular acidification. Together, our results support the notion that extracellular acidosis may intensify acute inflammatory responses by inducing neutrophil activation as well as by delaying spontaneous apoptosis and extending neutrophil functional lifespan. (+info)
(7/831) Effects of a phosphate buffered extracellular (Ep4) solution in preservation and reperfusion injury in the canine liver.
The Ep4 solution, a phosphate buffered extracellular-type solution, is effective in canine lung transplantation following a 96-hour hypothermic (4 degrees C) preservation. In this experiment, we used this solution for liver preservation followed by transplantation. We compared the Ep4 solution with the lactated Ringer's (LR) and the Collins' M (CM) solution (a phosphate buffered intracellular-type solution) in two studies, 1) 48-hour liver preservation, and 2) orthotopic liver transplantation after 5-hour preservation. In the preservation study, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) levels as a marker of endothelial damage, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were significantly lower in the livers immersed into the Ep4 solution than in those immersed into other solutions at 36 and 48 hours after preservation. Microscopically, the endothelial injury occurred 24 hours after preservation in the CM solution, and 36 hours after preservation in the LR and Ep4 solutions. In the transplantation study, serum PNP and ALT levels in the livers immersed in Ep4 solution showed a lower tendency compared with those in other solutions at the time of reperfusion, but the histological differences among three groups were not apparent. The present study suggests that the liver can be stored better for a longer time using Ep4 solution than using LR and CM solutions. (+info)
(8/831) Effect of hyposmotic challenge on microvillous membrane potential in isolated human placental villi.
This study examined the effect of hyposmotic solutions on the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane potential (Em) in mature intermediate villi isolated from term human placentas. When villi were exposed to a control solution (280 mosmol/kgH2O; 116 mM NaCl) and then to either a 138-hyposmotic (138 mosmol/kgH2O; 37 mM NaCl) or 170-hyposmotic (170 mosmol/kgH2O; 55 mM NaCl) solution, there was a significant hyperpolarization of Em (-5.1 +/- 1.5 mV, P < 0.01 and -5.0 +/- 0.5 mV, P < 0.001, respectively; n = 10), which was reversible on removal of the hyposmotic stimulus. Low-NaCl (37 and 55 mM) solutions made isosmotic with control (i.e., 280 mosmol/kgH2O) by addition of raffinose did not significantly alter Em, suggesting that reducing NaCl concentration per se had no effect on Em. Exposure to 170-hyposmotic solution in the presence of 5 mM BaCl2 depolarized Em by +4.1 +/- 0.7 mV (P < 0.001, n = 6); BaCl2 similarly depolarized Em when added in control solution (+5.6 +/- 1. 1 mV, n = 5). Exposure to 170-hyposmotic solution containing 1 mM DIDS hyperpolarized Em by -9.0 +/- 1.7 mV (P < 0.001, n = 5). This degree of hyperpolarization was significantly greater than that observed in hyposmotic solution alone (P < 0.01) but was not different from the hyperpolarization when DIDS was added to control solution (-7.4 +/- 0.2 mV, n = 6). We conclude 1) that Ba2+-sensitive K+ conductances and DIDS-sensitive anion conductances contribute to the resting potential of the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane and 2) that the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane responds to a hyposmotic stimulus by activating both Ba2+-sensitive K+ and DIDS-sensitive anion conductances. (+info)