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(1/281) Substance P is expressed in hippocampal principal neurons during status epilepticus and plays a critical role in the maintenance of status epilepticus.

Substance P (SP), a member of the tachykinin family, is widely distributed in the central nervous system and is involved in a variety of physiological processes including cardiovascular function, inflammatory responses, and nociception. We show here that intrahippocampal administration of SP triggers self-sustaining status epilepticus (SSSE) in response to stimulation of the perforant path for periods too brief to have any effect in control rats, and this SSSE generates a pattern of acute hippocampal damage resembling that known to occur in human epilepsy. The SP receptor (SPR) antagonists, spantide II and RP-67,580, block both the initiation of SSSE and SSSE-induced hippocampal damage and terminate established anticonvulsant-resistant SSSE. SSSE results in a rapid and dramatic increase in the expression of preprotachykinin A (a precursor of SP) mRNA and SP in principal neurons in CA3, CA1, and the dentate gyrus as well as in hippocampal mossy fibers. SP also increases glutamate release from hippocampal slices. Enhanced expression of SP during SSSE may modulate hippocampal excitability and contribute to the maintenance of SSSE. Thus, SPR antagonists may constitute a novel category of drugs in antiepileptic therapy.  (+info)

(2/281) In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of T-3811ME, a novel des-F(6)-quinolone.

The in vitro and in vivo activities of T-3811ME, a novel des-F(6)-quinolone, were evaluated in comparison with those of some fluoroquinolones, including a newly developed one, trovafloxacin. T-3811, a free base of T-3811ME, showed a wide range of antimicrobial spectra, including activities against Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In particular, T-3811 exhibited potent activity against various gram-positive cocci, with MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of 0.025 to 6.25 microgram/ml. T-3811 was the most active agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). T-3811 also showed potent activity against quinolone-resistant gram-positive cocci with GyrA and ParC (GrlA) mutations. The activity of T-3811 against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative gram-negative rods was comparable to that of trovafloxacin. In common with other fluoroquinolones, T-3811 was highly active against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Legionella sp., with MIC90s of 0.0125 to 0.1 microgram/ml. T-3811 showed a potent activity against anaerobic bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium difficile. T-3811 was the most active agent against C. trachomatis (MIC, 0.008 microgram/ml) and M. pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.0313 microgram/ml). The activity of T-3811 against M. tuberculosis (MIC90, 0.0625 microgram/ml) was potent and superior to that of trovafloxacin. In experimental systemic infection with a GrlA mutant of S. aureus and experimental pneumonia with PRSP in mice, T-3811ME showed excellent therapeutic efficacy in oral and subcutaneous administrations.  (+info)

(3/281) Antifolate resistance mediated by the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2.

Transfection of multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) MRP1 and MRP2 in human ovarian carcinoma 2008 cells conferred a marked level of resistance to short-term (1-4 h) exposure to the polyglutamatable antifolates methotrexate (MTX; 21-74-fold), ZD1694 (4-138-fold), and GW1843 (101-156-fold). Evidence for MRP-mediated antifolate efflux relies upon the following findings: (a) a 2-3.3-fold lower accumulation of [3H]MTX and subsequent reduced formation of long-chain polyglutamate forms of MTX; (b) reversal of MTX resistance by probenecid in both transfectants, and (c) ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]MTX in inside-out vesicles of MRP1 and MRP2 transfectants. This report provides a mechanistic basis for resistance to polyglutamatable antifolates through an MRP-mediated drug extrusion.  (+info)

(4/281) Capsaicin-insensitive sensory-efferent meningeal vasodilatation evoked by electrical stimulation of trigeminal nerve fibres in the rat.

1. Antidromic vasodilatation and plasma extravasation to stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion or its perivascular meningeal fibres was investigated by laser-Doppler flowmetry and 125I-labelled bovin serum albumin in the dura mater and in exteroceptive areas (nasal mucosa, upper eyelid) of anaesthetized rats pretreated with guanethidine and pipecuronium. 2 Trigeminal stimulation at 5 Hz for 20 s elicited unilateral phasic vasodilatation in the dura and lasting response in the nasal mucosa. Resiniferatoxin (1-3 microg kg(-1) i.v.), topical (1%) or systemic capsaicin pretreatment (300 mg kg(-1) s.c. plus 1 mg kg(-1) i.v.) did not inhibit the meningeal responses but abolished or strongly inhibited the nasal responses. Administration of vinpocetine (3 mg kg(-1) i.v.) increased both basal blood flow and the dural vasodilatation to perivascular nerve stimulation. 3. Dural vasodilatation to trigeminal stimulation was not inhibited by the calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor (CGRP-1) antagonist hCGRP8-37 (15 or 50 microg kg(-1) i.v), or the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist RP 67580 (0.1 mg kg(-1) i.v.) although both antagonists inhibited the nasal response. Neither mucosal nor meningeal responses were inhibited by atropine (5 mg kg(-1) i.v.), hexamethonium (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) or the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antagonist (p-chloro-D-Phe6-Leul7)VIP (20 microg kg(-1) i.v.). 4. Plasma extravasation in the dura and upper eyelid elicited by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion was almost completely abolished in rats pretreated with resiniferatoxin (3 microg kg(-1) i.v.). 5. It is concluded that in the rat meningeal vasodilatation evoked by stimulation of trigeminal fibres is mediated by capsaicin-insensitive primary afferents, while plasma extravasation in the dura and upper eyelid and the vasodilatation in the nasal mucosa are mediated by capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal fibres.  (+info)

(5/281) Respiratory action of capsaicin microinjected into the nucleus of the solitary tract: involvement of vanilloid and tachykinin receptors.

1. The respiratory response to microinjection of capsaicin into the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) of urethane-anaesthetized rats was investigated in the absence and presence of the competitive vanilloid (capsaicin) antagonist, capsazepine, and selective tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 antagonists (RP 67580, SR 48968 and SR 142801, respectively). 2. Microinjection of capsaicin reduced respiratory frequency but not tidal volume (VT), leading to an overall reduction in minute ventilation (VE). The effect was dose-dependent between 0.5 and 2 nmol capsaicin. Doses greater than 2 nmol produced apnoea. Tachyphylaxis was observed following repeated injection of capsaicin (1 nmol, 30 min apart). 3. Capsazepine (1 nmol) had no effect on frequency or VT when injected alone but completely blocked the respiratory response to capsaicin (1 nmol). 4. RP 67580 (1 but not 5 nmol) alone depressed frequency and VT slightly. Moreover, RP 67580 appeared to potentiate the bradypnoeic effect of capsaicin. In contrast, SR 48968 and SR 142801 (1 and 5 nmol) alone had no significant effect on respiration. However, both agents significantly attenuated the reduction in frequency produced by capsaicin. 5. In conclusion, microinjection of capsaicin into the cNTS decreases overall ventilation, primarily by reducing frequency. The action of capsaicin appears from the data to be mediated by vanilloid receptors since it is blocked by the competitive vanilloid antagonist capsazepine and is subject to tachyphylaxis. However, since NK2 (SR 48968) and NK3 (SR 142801) receptor antagonists block the actions of capsaicin, we propose that capsaicin acts also by releasing tachykinins from central afferent terminals in the cNTS.  (+info)

(6/281) Repeated challenge with dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized mice results in vascular hyperpermeability in the trachea: a role for tachykinins.

1. This study investigates the role of tachykinins in a repeated challenge with dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNS) on the tracheal vascular permeability in dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-sensitized mice. 2. DNFB-contact sensitization was followed by an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with DNS. A second challenge with DNS was administered 24 h after the first challenge. To assess changes in tracheal vascular permeability, Evans blue dye accumulation in tracheal tissue was measured. 3. A repeated challenge with DNS in DNFB-sensitized mice led to a 2.8 fold increase in tracheal vascular permeability when compared to DNFB-sensitized and vehicle-challenged mice or a 2.5 fold increase when compared to DNFB-sensitized single DNS-challenged mice (P<0.001, ANOVA). 4. RP67580 (10-9 mol mouse-1 i.v.) reduced the increased tracheal vascular permeability induced by a second exposure to DNS in DNFB-sensitized mice completely when injected 15 min before the second challenge (P<0.001, ANOVA). 5. The increased tracheal vascular permeability response induced by the second exposure to DNS could be mimicked with i.n. application of capsaicin (10-10 mol mouse-1) or substance P (SP) (10-12 mol mouse-1) to DNFB-sensitized and single DNS-challenged mice. 6. These results suggest that both tachykinin NK1 receptors and sensory nerves are involved in the development of vascular hyperpermeability changes found in the trachea of DNFB-sensitized mice after a repeated DNS-challenge.  (+info)

(7/281) Inhibition of heterologously expressed cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channels by non-sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents.

1. Hypoglycaemia-inducing sulphonylureas, such as glibenclamide, inhibit cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels. In search of modulators of CFTR, we investigated the effects of the non-sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents meglitinide, repaglinide, and mitiglinide (KAD-1229) on CFTR Cl- channels in excised inside-out membrane patches from C127 cells expressing wild-type human CFTR. 2. When added to the intracellular solution, meglitinide and mitiglinide inhibited CFTR Cl- currents with half-maximal concentrations of 164+/-19 microM and 148+/-36 microM, respectively. However, repaglinide only weakly inhibited CFTR Cl- currents. 3. To understand better how non-sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents inhibit CFTR, we studied single channels. Channel blockade by both meglitinide and mitiglinide was characterized by flickery closures and a significant decrease in open probability (Po). In contrast, repaglinide was without effect on either channel gating or Po, but caused a small decrease in single-channel current amplitude. 4. Analysis of the dwell time distributions of single channels indicated that both meglitinide and mitiglinide greatly decreased the open time of CFTR. Mitiglinide-induced channel closures were about 3-fold longer than those of meglitinide. 5. Inhibition of CFTR by meglitinide and mitiglinide was voltage-dependent: at positive voltages channel blockade was relieved. 6. The data demonstrate that non-sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents inhibit CFTR. This indicates that these agents have a wider specificity of action than previously recognized. Like glibenclamide, non-sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents may inhibit CFTR by occluding the channel pore and preventing Cl- permeation.  (+info)

(8/281) Inactivation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein impairs the normal redistribution but not the turnover of newly synthesized glycerolipid in the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi of primary rat hepatocytes.

The requirements for microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) during the turnover and transfer of glycerolipids from intracellular compartments into secretory very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were studied by pre-labelling lipids with [(3)H]glycerol and [(14)C]oleate in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. The intracellular redistribution of pre-labelled glycerolipids was then compared at the end of subsequent chase periods during which the MTP inhibitor BMS-200150 was either present or absent in the medium. Inhibition of MTP resulted in a decreased output of VLDL triacylglycerol (TAG) and a delayed removal of labelled TAG from the cytosol and from the membranes of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the cis- and the trans-Golgi. Inactivation of MTP did not decrease the bulk lipolytic turnover of cellular TAG as reflected by changes in its [(3)H]glycerol:[(14)C]oleate ratios. However, a larger proportion of the resultant TAG fatty acids was re-esterified and remained with the membranes of the various subcellular fractions rather than emerging as VLDL. The effects of BMS-200150 on the pattern of phospholipid (PL) mechanism and redistribution suggested that inhibition of MTP prevented the normal lipolytic transfer of PL-derived fatty acids out of the SER, cis- and trans-Golgi membrane pools. Finally, changes in the (14)C specific radioactivities of the cytosolic and membrane pools of TAG suggested that inhibition of MTP prevented a normal influx of relatively unlabelled fatty acids into these pools during the chase period.  (+info)