A neomorphic syntaxin mutation blocks volatile-anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans.
The molecular mechanisms underlying general anesthesia are unknown. For volatile general anesthetics (VAs), indirect evidence for both lipid and protein targets has been found. However, no in vivo data have implicated clearly any particular lipid or protein in the control of sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs. Genetics provides one approach toward identifying these mechanisms, but genes strongly regulating sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs have not been identified. By screening existing mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a mutation in the neuronal syntaxin gene dominantly conferred resistance to the VAs isoflurane and halothane. By contrast, other mutations in syntaxin and in the syntaxin-binding proteins synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 produced VA hypersensitivity. The syntaxin allelic variation was striking, particularly for isoflurane, where a 33-fold range of sensitivities was seen. Both the resistant and hypersensitive mutations decrease synaptic transmission; thus, the indirect effect of reducing neurotransmission does not explain the VA resistance. As assessed by pharmacological criteria, halothane and isoflurane themselves reduced cholinergic transmission, and the presynaptic anesthetic effect was blocked by the resistant syntaxin mutation. A single gene mutation conferring high-level resistance to VAs is inconsistent with nonspecific membrane-perturbation theories of anesthesia. The genetic and pharmacological data suggest that the resistant syntaxin mutant directly blocks VA binding to or efficacy against presynaptic targets that mediate anesthetic behavioral effects. Syntaxin and syntaxin-binding proteins are candidate anesthetic targets. (+info)
Clinical isoflurane metabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1.
BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that isoflurane metabolism to trifluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride by human liver microsomes in vitro is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). This investigation tested the hypothesis that P450 2E1 predominantly catalyzes human isoflurane metabolism in vivo. Disulfiram, which is converted in vivo to a selective inhibitor of P450 2E1, was used as a metabolic probe for P450 2E1. METHODS: Twenty-two elective surgery patients who provided institutionally-approved written informed consent were randomized to receive disulfiram (500 mg orally, N = 12) or nothing (controls, N = 10) the evening before surgery. All patients received a standard isoflurane anesthetic (1.5% end-tidal in oxygen) for 8 hr. Urine and plasma trifluoroacetic acid and fluoride concentrations were quantitated in samples obtained for 4 days postoperatively. RESULTS: Patient groups were similar with respect to age, weight, gender, duration of surgery, blood loss, and delivered isoflurane dose, measured by cumulative end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (9.7-10.2 MAC-hr). Postoperative urine excretion of trifluoroacetic acid (days 1-4) and fluoride (days 1-3) was significantly (P<0.05) diminished in disulfiram-treated patients. Cumulative 0-96 hr excretion of trifluoroacetic acid and fluoride in disulfiram-treated patients was 34+/-72 and 270+/-70 micromoles (mean +/- SD), respectively, compared to 440+/-360 and 1500+/-800 micromoles in controls (P<0.05 for both). Disulfiram also abolished the rise in plasma metabolite concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Disulfiram, a selective inhibitor of human hepatic P450 2E1, prevented 80-90% of isoflurane metabolism. These results suggest that P450 2E1 is the predominant P450 isoform responsible for human clinical isoflurane metabolism in vivo. (+info)
Potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of mesenteric vascular smooth muscle by isoflurane.
BACKGROUND: A primary source of calcium (Ca2+) necessary for excitation contraction in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is influx via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Thus, force generation in VSM is coupled closely to resting transmembrane potential, which itself is primarily a function of potassium conductance. Previously, the authors reported that volatile anesthetics hyperpolarize VSM of small mesenteric resistance arteries and capacitance veins. The current study was designed to determine whether isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization is the result of specific effects on one or more of four types of potassium channels known to exist in VSM. METHODS: Transmembrane potentials (Em) were recorded from in situ mesenteric capacitance and resistance vessels in Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g. In separate experiments, selective inhibitors of each of four types of potassium channels known to exist in VSM were administered in the superfusate of the vessel preparations to assess their effects on isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization. RESULTS: Resting VSM Em ranged from -38 to -43 mV after local sympathetic denervation. Isoflurane produced a significant hyperpolarization (2.7-4.3 mV), whereas each potassium channel inhibitor significantly depolarized (2.8-8.5 mV) the VSM. Both 100 nM iberiotoxin (inhibitor of high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) and 1 microM glybenclamide (inhibitor of adenosine triphosphatase-sensitive potassium channels) significantly inhibited VSM hyperpolarization induced by 1 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) levels of inhaled isoflurane (0.1-0.9 mV Em change, which was not significant). In contrast, isoflurane hyperpolarized the VSM significantly despite the presence of 3 mM 4 aminopyridine (inhibitor of voltage-dependent potassium channels) or 10 microM barium chloride (an inhibitor of inward rectifier potassium channels) (3.7-8.2 mV change in VSM Em). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization (and associated relaxation) of VSM can be attributed in part to an enhanced (or maintained) opening of calcium-activated and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels but not voltage-dependent or inward rectifier potassium channels. (+info)
Effects of isoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary vascular response to K+ ATP channel activation and circulatory hypotension in chronically instrumented dogs.
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary vascular responses to exogenous adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K+ ATP) channel activation and circulatory hypotension compared with responses measured in the conscious state. In addition, the extent to which K+ ATP channel inhibition modulates the pulmonary vascular response to circulatory hypotension in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs was assessed. METHODS: Fifteen conditioned, male mongrel dogs were fitted with instruments for long-term monitoring to measure the left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relation. The dose-response relation to the K+ ATP channel agonist, lemakalim, and the pulmonary vascular response to circulatory hypotension were assessed in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized (approximately 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration) dogs. The effect of the selective K+ ATP channel antagonist, glibenclamide, on the pulmonary vascular response to hypotension was also assessed in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. RESULTS: Isoflurane had no effect on the baseline pulmonary circulation, but it attenuated (P<0.05) the pulmonary vasodilator response to lemakalim. Reducing the mean systemic arterial pressure to approximately 50 mm Hg resulted in pulmonary vasoconstriction (P<0.05) in the conscious state, and this response was attenuated (P<0.05) during isoflurane. Glibenclamide had no effect on the baseline pulmonary circulation, but it potentiated (P<0.05) the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that K+ ATP-mediated pulmonary vasodilation and the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension are attenuated during isoflurane anesthesia. Endogenous K+ ATP channel activation modulates the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension in the conscious state, and this effect is preserved during isoflurane anesthesia. (+info)
Mechanisms of isoflurane-induced myocardial preconditioning in rabbits.
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane has cardioprotective effects that mimic the ischemic preconditioning phenomenon. Because adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and adenosine receptors are implicated in ischemic preconditioning, the authors wanted to determine whether the preconditioning effect of isoflurane is mediated through these pathways. METHODS: Myocardial infarct size was measured in seven groups of propofol-anesthetized rabbits, each subjected to 30 min of anterolateral coronary occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Groups differed only in the pretreatments given, and controls received no pretreatment. An ischemia-preconditioned group was pretreated with 5 min of coronary occlusion and 15 min of reperfusion. An isoflurane-preconditioned group was pretreated with 15 min end-tidal isoflurane, 1.1%, and then 15 min of washout. An isoflurane-plus-glyburide group was administered 0.33 mg/kg glyburide intravenously before isoflurane pretreatment. An isoflurane plus 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline (SPT) group received 7.5 mg/kg SPT intravenously before isoflurane. Additional groups were administered identical doses of glyburide or SPT, but they were not pretreated with isoflurane. Infarct size and area at risk were defined by staining. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance or covariance. RESULTS: Infarct size, expressed as a percentage of the area at risk (IS:AR) was 30.2+/-11% (SD) in controls. Ischemic preconditioning and isoflurane preexposure reduced myocardial infarct size significantly, to 8.3+/-5% and 13.4+/-8.2% (P<0.05), respectively. Both glyburide and SPT pretreatment eliminated the preconditioning-like effect of isoflurane (IS:AR = 30.0+/-9.1% and 29.2+/-12.6%, respectively; P = not significant). Neither glyburide nor SPF alone increased infarct size (IS:AR = 33.9+/-7.6% and 31.8+/-12.7%, respectively; P = not significant). CONCLUSIONS: Glyburide and SPT abolished the preconditioning-like effects of isoflurane but did not increase infarct size when administered in the absence of isoflurane. Isoflurane-induced preconditioning and ischemia-induced preconditioning share similar mechanisms, which include activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and adenosine receptors. (+info)
Sympathetic ganglionic blockade masks beneficial effect of isoflurane on histologic outcome from near-complete forebrain ischemia in the rat.
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane-anesthetized rats have better outcome from global cerebral ischemia than rats anesthetized with fentanyl and nitrous oxide. The authors wanted to determine whether circulating catecholamine concentrations depend on the anesthetic agent and whether sympathetic ganglionic blockade affects anesthetic-mediated differences in outcome from near-complete forebrain ischemia. METHODS: For two different experiments, normothermic Sprague-Dawley rats that had fasted were assigned to one of four groups and subjected to 10 min of 30 mm Hg mean arterial pressure and bilateral carotid occlusion. Rats were anesthetized with 1.4% isoflurane or fentanyl (25 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and 70% nitrous oxide, with or without preischemic trimethaphan (2.5 mg given intravenously). In experiment 1, arterial plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured before, at 2 and 8 min during, and after ischemia (n = 5-8). In experiment 2, animals (n = 15) underwent histologic analysis 5 days after ischemia. RESULTS: In experiment 1, intraischemic increases in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were 28 and 12 times greater in the fentanyl-nitrous oxide group than in the isoflurane group (P<0.01). Trimethaphan blocked all changes in plasma catecholamine concentrations (P<0.02). In experiment 2, isoflurane reduced the mean +/- SD percentage of dead hippocampal CA1 neurons compared with fentanyl-nitrous oxide (43+/-22% vs. 87+/-10%; P<0.001). Trimethaphan abolished the beneficial effects of isoflurane (91+/-6%; P<0.001). Similar observations were made in the cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Isoflurane attenuated the peripheral sympathetic response to ischemia and improved histologic outcome compared with fentanyl and nitrous oxide. This outcome benefit was reversed by sympathetic ganglionic blockade. The beneficial effects of isoflurane may result from a neuroprotective influence of an intermediate sympathetic response that is abolished by trimethaphan. (+info)
Comparison of the effects of halothane, isoflurane and methoxyflurane on the electroencephalogram of the horse.
We have investigated in eight ponies the effects of three different end-tidal concentrations of halothane, isoflurane and methoxyflurane on median (F50) and 95% spectral edge (F95) frequencies of the EEG and the second differential (DD) of the middle latency auditory evoked potential (MLAEP). The three concentrations of each agent were chosen to represent approximately the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), 1.25 MAC and 1.5 MAC for each agent. During halothane anaesthesia, F95 decreased progressively as halothane concentration increased, from mean 13.9 (SD 2.6) at 0.8% to 11.9 (1.1) at 1.2%. DD was lower during anaesthesia with the highest concentration (21 (6.5)) compared with the lowest (27.6 (11.4)). There were no significant changes in F50. During isoflurane anaesthesia, there was a small, but significant increase in F95 between the intermediate and highest concentrations (10.2 (1.5) to 10.8 (1.6)). There were no changes in F50 and DD. Values of F95, F50 and DD at all isoflurane concentrations were similar to those of halothane at the highest concentration. During methoxyflurane anaesthesia, F95 and F50 decreased progressively as methoxyflurane concentration was increased, from 21.3 (0.7) and 6.5 (1), respectively, at 0.26%, to 20.1 (0.6) and 5.6 (0.8), respectively, at 0.39%. DD was lower during anaesthesia with the highest concentration of methoxyflurane (25.7 (7.8)) compared with the lowest (39.7 (20.6)). Values of F95, F50 and DD at all methoxyflurane concentrations were higher than those seen with halothane at the lowest concentration. The different relative positions of the dose-response curves for EEG and MLAEP changes compared with antinociception (MAC) changes suggest differences in the mechanisms of action of these three agents. These differences may explain the incomplete adherence to the Meyer-Overton rule. (+info)
Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision.
We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision. (+info)