Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus.
Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes. (+info)
Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes.
Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (+info)
Characterization of a mutant pancreatic eIF-2alpha kinase, PEK, and co-localization with somatostatin in islet delta cells.
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2alpha (eIF-2alpha) is one of the key steps where protein synthesis is regulated in response to changes in environmental conditions. The phosphorylation is carried out in part by three distinct eIF-2alpha kinases including mammalian double-stranded RNA-dependent eIF-2alpha kinase (PKR) and heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI), and yeast GCN2. We report the identification and characterization of a related kinase, PEK, which shares common features with other eIF-2alpha kinases including phosphorylation of eIF-2alpha in vitro. We show that human PEK is regulated by different mechanisms than PKR or HRI. In contrast to PKR or HRI, which are dependent on autophosphorylation for their kinase activity, a point mutation that replaced the conserved Lys-614 with an alanine completely abolished the eIF-2alpha kinase activity, whereas the mutant PEK was still autophosphorylated when expressed in Sf-9 cells. Northern blot analysis indicates that PEK mRNA was predominantly expressed in pancreas, though low expression was also present in several tissues. Consistent with the high levels of mRNA in pancreas, the PEK protein was only detected in human pancreatic islets, and the kinase co-localized with somatostatin, a pancreatic delta cell-specific hormone. Thus PEK is believed to play an important role in regulating protein synthesis in the pancreatic islet, especially in islet delta cells. (+info)
Characterization of a novel calcium response element in the glucagon gene.
To maintain blood glucose levels within narrow limits, the synthesis and secretion of pancreatic islet hormones is controlled by a variety of extracellular signals. Depolarization-induced calcium influx into islet cells has been shown to stimulate glucagon gene transcription through the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein that binds to the glucagon cAMP response element. By transient transfection of glucagon-reporter fusion genes into islet cell lines, this study identified a second calcium response element in the glucagon gene (G2 element, from -165 to -200). Membrane depolarization was found to induce the binding of a nuclear complex with NFATp-like immunoreactivity to the G2 element. Consistent with nuclear translocation, a comigrating complex was found in cytosolic extracts of unstimulated cells, and the induction of nuclear protein binding was blocked by inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity by FK506. A mutational analysis of G2 function and nuclear protein binding as well as the effect of FK506 indicate that calcium responsiveness is conferred to the G2 element by NFATp functionally interacting with HNF-3beta binding to a closely associated site. Transcription factors of the NFAT family are known to cooperate with AP-1 proteins in T cells for calcium-dependent activation of cytokine genes. This study shows a novel pairing of NFATp with the cell lineage-specific transcription factor HNF-3beta in islet cells to form a novel calcium response element in the glucagon gene. (+info)
Maternal adrenocortical hormones maintain the early development of pancreatic B cells in the fetal rat.
To investigate the effect of maternal adrenocortical hormones on the development of fetal pancreatic islet cells, pregnant rats were adrenalectomised on d 6 of gestation. On d 12-16 the growth patterns of fetal insulin-producing B cells, glucagon-producing A cells, and somatostatin-producing D cells were observed histometrically. Maternal adrenalectomy resulted in growth retardation of fetal B cells on d 12-15. Maternal corticosterone therapy prevented this retardation. Maternal adrenalectomy, however, did not affect the developmental patterns of A and D cells. By Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, glucocorticoid receptors were demonstrated to be present in the islet cells from d 12 to d 15. These results suggest that maternal adrenocortical hormones, glucocorticoids in particular, maintain the early development of fetal pancreatic B cells through their specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptor. (+info)
Characterization of beta cells developed in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium.
The present study evaluates the development and functional properties of beta cells differentiated in vitro. The authors have previously demonstrated that when E12.5 rat pancreatic rudiments are cultured in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme, the majority of the epithelial cells differentiate into endocrine beta cells. Thus, depletion of the mesenchyme provokes the expansion of endocrine tissue at the expense of exocrine tissue. The potential use of this procedure for the production of beta cells led the authors to characterize the beta cells differentiated in this model and to compare their properties with those of the endocrine cells of the embryonic and adult pancreas. This study shows that the beta cells that differentiate in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme express the homeodomain protein Nkx6.1, a transcription factor that is characteristic of adult mature beta cells. Further, electron microscopy analysis shows that these beta cells are highly granulated, and the ultrastructural analysis of the granules shows that they are characteristic of mature beta cells. The maturity of these granules was confirmed by a double-immunofluorescence study that demonstrated that Rab3A and SNAP-25, two proteins associated with the secretory pathway of insulin, are strongly expressed. Finally, the maturity of the differentiated beta cells in this model was confirmed when the cells responded to stimulation with 16 mM glucose by a 5-fold increase in insulin release. The authors conclude that the beta cells differentiated in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic rudiments devoid of mesenchyme are mature beta cells. (+info)
L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion through membrane depolarization and independent of nitric oxide.
The mechanism of L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic islets was studied. At 16.7 mmol/l glucose, L-arginine (10 mmol/l) potentiated both phases 1 and 2 of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion was mimicked by the membrane depolarizing agents tetraethylammonium (TEA, 20 mmol/l) and K+ (60 mmol/l), which at 16.7 mmol/l glucose obliterated L-arginine (10 mmol/l) modulation of insulin secretion. Thus L-arginine may potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion by stimulation of membrane depolarization. At 3.3 mmol/l glucose, L-arginine (10 mmol/l) failed to stimulate insulin secretion. In accordance with membrane depolarization by the electrogenic transport of L-arginine, however, L-arginine (10 mmol/l) stimulation of insulin secretion was enabled by the K+ channel inhibitor TEA (20 mmol/l), which potentiates membrane depolarization by L-arginine. Furthermore, L-arginine (10 mmol/l) stimulation of insulin secretion was permitted by forskolin (10 micromol/l) or tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (0.16 micromol/l), which, by activation of protein kinases A and C respectively sensitize the exocytotic machinery to L-arginine-induced Ca2+ influx. Thus glucose may sensitize L-arginine stimulation of insulin secretion by potentiation of membrane depolarization and by activation of protein kinase A or protein kinase C. Finally, L-arginine stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion was mimicked by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 mmol/l), which stimulates membrane depolarization but inhibits nitric oxide synthase, suggesting that L-arginine-derived nitric oxide neither inhibits nor stimulates insulin secretion. In conclusion, it is suggested that L-arginine potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion occurs independently of nitric oxide, but is mediated by membrane depolarization, which stimulates insulin secretion through protein kinase A- and C-sensitive mechanisms. (+info)
Insulin-stimulated insulin secretion in single pancreatic beta cells.
Functional insulin receptors are known to occur in pancreatic beta cells; however, except for a positive feedback on insulin synthesis, their physiological effects are unknown. Amperometric measurements at single, primary pancreatic beta cells reveal that application of exogenous insulin in the presence or absence of nonstimulatory concentrations of glucose evokes exocytosis mediated by the beta cell insulin receptor. Insulin also elicits increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in beta cells but has minimal effects on membrane potential. Conditions where the insulin receptor is blocked or cell surface concentration of free insulin is reduced during exocytosis diminishes secretion induced by other secretagogues, providing evidence for direct autocrine action of insulin upon secretion from the same cell. These results indicate that the beta cell insulin receptor can mediate positive feedback for insulin secretion. The presence of a positive feedback mechanism for insulin secretion mediated by the insulin receptor provides a potential link between impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. (+info)