Quantitative analysis of uterosacral ligament origin and insertion points by magnetic resonance imaging.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage of healthy women in whom the uterosacral ligaments are identifiable on standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and to determine origin points from the genital tract and insertion points on the pelvic sidewall. METHODS: Eighty-two asymptomatic women (mean +/- standard deviation age 53 +/- 12 years; mean parity 2.5, range 0-7) volunteered for this study. They were eligible if the most dependent vaginal wall point lay at least 1 cm above the hymenal ring remnant during a Valsalva maneuver. Axial proton density MRI of the entire pelvis was analyzed at 5-mm intervals. All results were referenced to the ischial spine. We determined the visibility of the uterosacral ligaments and located their origins from the genital tract and their insertion points on the pelvic sidewall. RESULTS: Uterosacral ligaments were visible in 61 (87%) of 70 analyzable scans. They extended over a mean craniocaudal distance of 21 +/- 8 mm (range 10-50). Three regions of origin were found: cervix alone, cervix and vagina in the same section, and vagina alone. Thirty-three percent, 63%, and 4% of 254 identified origin points were from these three areas, respectively. Of 259 uterosacral insertion points, 82% overlaid the sacrospinous ligament/coccygeus muscle complex, 7% the sacrum, and 11% the piriformis muscle, the sciatic foramen, or the ischial spine. Although uterosacral ligament morphology was similar bilaterally, its craniocaudal extent was greater on the right side. CONCLUSION: In healthy women, the uterosacral ligament origin and insertion points exhibited greater anatomic variation than their name would imply. (+info)
OBJECTIVE: We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. RESULTS: The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. CONCLUSION: Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. (+info)
Unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis: a study of 16 cases.
Unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis are extremely rare. This study summarizes the clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 16 cases. Patients ranged in age from nine to 69. Most lesions were in the anterior portion of the iliac wing; many appeared to be related to an open iliac crest apophysis. This suggests that the pathogenesis of unicameral bone cysts in this portion of the ilium is similar to that seen in the proximal humerus and the proximal femur. The correct diagnosis was made preoperatively in only five cases. This indicates that, although they are well documented, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis remain a diagnostic problem. Patients received a spectrum of treatments from curettage to observation. There appeared to be no difference in the outcome after any form of treatment. Therefore, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis can be managed conservatively. The choice to manage patients conservatively depends on making the correct diagnosis based on clinical history and imaging. The most effective imaging is a combination of plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (+info)
Septic ischial bursitis in patients with spinal cord injury.
Septic ischial bursitis is described in 4 patients with spinal cord injury. In these patients a pre-existing ischial bursitis probably became secondarily infected. Because these patients lack sensation, diagnosis may be difficult. The disease process in one patient with a prolonged fever was only recognized after a leucocyte scan detected an abscess extending to the thigh. At surgery it was found that the infection extended from the ischial bursa to the upper lateral thigh. Infection in these patients was due to beta hemolytic streptococcus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. The patients all responded well to local drainage and excision of the bursa. (+info)
Genetics of canid skeletal variation: size and shape of the pelvis.
The mammalian skeleton presents an ideal system in which to study the genetic architecture of a set of related polygenic traits and the skeleton of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is arguably the best system in which to address the relationship between genes and anatomy. We have analyzed the genetic basis for skeletal variation in a population of >450 Portuguese Water Dogs. At this stage of this ongoing project, we have identified >40 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heritable skeletal phenotypes located on 22 different chromosomes, including the "X." A striking aspect of these is the regulation of suites of traits representing bones located in different parts of the skeleton but related by function. Here we illustrate this by describing genetic variation in postcranial morphology. Two suites of traits are involved. One regulates the size of the pelvis relative to dimensions of the limb bones. The other regulates the shape of the pelvis. Both are examples of trade-offs that may be prototypical of different breeds. For the size of the pelvis relative to limb bones, we describe four QTLs located on autosome CFA 12, 30, 31, and X. For pelvic shape we describe QTLs on autosome CFA 2, 3, 22, and 36. The relation of these polygenic systems to musculoskeletal function is discussed. (+info)
Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities of seated individuals during sacral nerve root stimulation.
Neuromuscular stimulation via the sacral nerve roots is proposed for prevention of ischial pressure ulcers following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Acute effects of sacral functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) on seat interface pressure changes were investigated in five nondisabled volunteers. Similar effects were demonstrated with functional electrical stimulation in people with SCI who used a sacral anterior root stimulator implant. The results indicated that sacral nerve root stimulation, either by FMS or implanted electrical stimulation, induced gluteus maximus contraction and mild pelvic tilt sufficient for clinically significant reductions in ischial pressures during sitting. (+info)
Periodically relieving ischial sitting load to decrease the risk of pressure ulcers.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relieving effect on interface pressure of an alternate sitting protocol involving a sitting posture that reduces ischial support. DESIGN: Repeated measures in 2 protocols on 3 groups of subjects. SETTING: Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty able-bodied persons, 20 persons with paraplegia, and 20 persons with tetraplegia. INTERVENTIONS: Two 1-hour protocols were used: alternate and normal plus pushup. In the alternate protocol, sitting posture was alternated every 10 minutes between normal (sitting upright with ischial support) and with partially removed ischial support (WO-BPS) postures; in the normal plus pushup protocol, sitting was in normal posture with pushups (lifting the subject off the seat) performed every 20 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Interface pressure on seat and backrest. RESULTS: In WO-BPS posture, the concentrated interface pressure observed around the ischia in normal posture was significantly repositioned to the thighs. By cyclically repositioning the interface pressure, the alternate protocol was superior to the normal plus pushup protocol in terms of a significantly lower average interface pressure over the buttocks. CONCLUSIONS: A sitting protocol periodically reducing the ischial support helps lower the sitting load on the buttocks, especially the area close to ischial tuberosities. (+info)
Ischial spine projection into the pelvis : a new sign for acetabular retroversion.