Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds.
A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency. (+info)
A non-pungent triprenyl phenol of fungal origin, scutigeral, stimulates rat dorsal root ganglion neurons via interaction at vanilloid receptors.
1. A [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding assay utilizing rat spinal cord membranes was employed to identify novel vanilloids in a collection of natural products of fungal origin. Of the five active compounds found (scutigeral, acetyl-scutigeral, ovinal, neogrifolin, and methyl-neogrifolin), scutigeral (Ki=19 microM), isolated from the edible mushroom Albatrellus ovinus, was selected for further characterization. 2. Scutigeral induced a dose-dependent 45Ca uptake by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons with an EC50 of 1.6 microM, which was fully inhibited by the competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (IC50=5.2 microM). 3. [3H]-RTX binding isotherms were shifted by scutigeral (10-80 microM) in a competitive manner. The Schild plot of the data had a slope of 0.8 and gave an apparent Kd estimate for scutigeral of 32 microM. 4. Although in the above assays scutigeral mimicked capsaicin, it was not pungent on the human tongue up to a dose of 100 nmol per tongue, nor did it provoke protective wiping movements in the rat (up to 100 microM) upon intraocular instillation. 5. In accord with being non-pungent, scutigeral (5 microM) did not elicit a measurable inward current in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. It did, however, reduce the proportion of neurons (from 61 to 15%) that responded to a subsequent capsaicin (1 microM) challenge. In these neurons, scutigeral both delayed (from 27 to 72 s) and diminished (from 5.0 to 1.9 nA) the maximal current evoked by capsaicin. 6. In conclusion, scutigeral and its congeners form a new chemical class of vanilloids, the triprenyl phenols. Scutigeral promises to be a novel chemical lead for the development of orally active, non-pungent vanilloids. (+info)
Clinical studies of styrene workers: initial findings.
Styrene monomer is a high volume chemical used chiefly in production of polystyrene. A clinical survey of 493 production workers was undertaken at the oldest and largest monomer production, polymerization, and extrusion facility in the U.S. Relative exposure durations and levels were obtained from occupational histories. Significant differences between the high and low exposure groups were found with regard to history of acute prenarcotic symptoms, acute lower respiratory symptoms, prevalence of FEV 1/FV less than 75 per cent, and elevated GCTP. Other liver function tests, chest x-ray, FVC less than 80 per cent, and hematological parameters showed no distinct pattern. A concomitant mortality study has been mounted and is in progress. (+info)
Reactive airways dysfunction and systemic complaints after mass exposure to bromine.
Occasionally children are the victims of mass poisoning from an environmental contaminant that occurs due to an unexpected common point source of exposure. In many cases the contaminant is a widely used chemical generally considered to be safe. In the following case, members of a sports team visiting a community for an athletic event were exposed to chemicals while staying at a local motel. Bromine-based sanitizing agents and other chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, which were used in excess in the motel's swimming pool, may have accounted for symptoms experienced by the boy reported here and at least 16 other adolescents. Samples of pool water contained excess bromine (8.2 microg/mL; ideal pool bromine concentration is 2-4 microg/mL). Symptoms and signs attributable to bromine toxicity included irritative skin rashes; eye, nose, and throat irritation; bronchospasm; reduced exercise tolerance; fatigue; headache; gastrointestinal disturbances; and myalgias. While most of the victims recovered within a few days, the index case and several other adolescents had persistent or recurrent symptoms lasting weeks to months after the exposure. (+info)
Skin toxicity of propranolol in guinea pigs.
The skin toxicities of propranolol were studied in guinea pigs. In the primary and cumulative skin irritation studies, the skin reactions and the histopathological changes were observed in all animals treated with propranolol, and those tended to increase with the increase of propranolol dosage. The skin reactions increased with the application times of propranolol up to 7 days in the cumulative skin irritation study. In the skin sensitization, the phototoxicity and the skin photosensitization studies, no skin reactions were observed in any animals used in the studies. These results indicate that propranolol caused skin irritation, but was negative for skin sensitization, phototoxicity and skin photosensitization in guinea pigs. (+info)
A quantitative comparison of induction and challenge concentrations inducing a 50% positive response in three skin sensitization tests; the guinea pig maximization test, adjuvant and patch test and Buehler test.
The sensitivities of three skin sensitization tests such as the Guinea pig maximization test (GPMT), Adjuvant and patch test (APT) and Buehler test (BT), were quantitatively compared with reference to induction and challenge concentrations. Four chemical which had different physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) and reactivity with NH2-group) were used in order to clarify the effect of the physico-chemical properties of chemicals on the sensitivity of the different methods. The induction concentrations inducing a 50% positive response (IC50) demonstrated extreme variation with the three methods. For example, the BT/GPMT ratio of IC50 values for 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 33, whereas that for maleic anhydride was 300,000. The results were thought to be caused by difference properties such as the logP and reactivity of chemicals. This correlation was confirmed by using 2-dodecen-1-yl succinic anhydride, which had the same reactivity but higher logP than that of maleic anhydride. On the other hand, the challenge concentrations inducing 50% positive responses (CC50) were less affected by the methods and the BT/GPMT ratios for CC50 values were all within a 10-fold range. These results suggest that the sensitivity might be strongly different with reference to induction concentration, but not challenge concentration among the three methods. (+info)
Development of a flow cytometry assay for the identification and differentiation of chemicals with the potential to elicit irritation, IgE-mediated, or T cell-mediated hypersensitivity responses.
These studies were conducted to investigate the potential use of a flow cytometric analysis method for the identification and differentiation of chemicals with the capacity to induce irritation, IgE- or T cell-mediated hypersensitivity responses. An initial study investigated the ability of equally sensitizing concentrations (determined by local lymph node assay) of IgE-mediated (Toluene Diisocyanate-TDI) and T cell-mediated (Dinitrofluorobenzene-DNFB) allergens to differentially modulate the IgE+B220+ population in the lymph nodes draining the dermal exposure site. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was also tested as a nonsensitizing irritant control. Female B6C3F1 mice were dermally exposed once daily for 4 consecutive days, with the optimum time point for analysis determined by examining the IgE+B220+ population 8, 10, and 12 days post-initial chemical exposure. At the peak time point, day 10, the IgE+B220+ population was significantly elevated in TDI (41%), while moderately elevated in DNFB (18%) exposed animals when compared to the vehicle (0.8%), and remained unchanged in SLS (2.2%) exposed animals when compared to the ethanol control (2.5%). Experiments in our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the draining lymph node B220+ population becomes significantly elevated following exposure to allergens (IgE- and T cell-mediated), not irritants, allowing for their differentiation. An existing mouse ear swelling assay was used to identify chemical irritants. Therefore, using the endpoints of percent ear swelling, percent B220+ cells, and percent IgE+B220+ cells, a combined irritancy/phenotypic analysis assay was developed and tested with tetradecane (irritant), toluene diisocyanate, trimellitic anhydride (IgE-mediated allergens), benzalkonium chloride, dinitrofluorobenzene, oxazolone, and dinitrochlorobenzene (T cell-mediated allergens) over a range of concentrations. Based upon the pattern of response observed, a paradigm was developed for continued evaluation: Irritant exposure will result in significant ear swelling without altering the B220+ or IgE+B220+ populations. Exposure to sensitizers (IgE-mediated or T cell-mediated) will increase the B220+ population and the percent ear swelling will remain unchanged or will significantly increase, depending on the irritancy capacity of the chemical. Both the IgE+B220+ and B220+ populations will become elevated at the same test concentration following exposure to IgE-mediated, hypersensitivity inducing allergens. At its peak, the percent of IgE+B220+ cells will be equal to the percent of B220+ cells. The B220+ population will increase at a lower test concentration than the IgE+B220+ population, following exposure to T cell-mediated, hypersensitivity inducing allergens. At its peak, the percent of IgE+B220+ cells will reach less than half that of the percent of B220+ cells. The irritancy/phenotypic analysis method may represent a single murine assay able to identify and differentiate chemicals with the capacity to induce irritation, or IgE-mediated or T cell-mediated responses. (+info)
Comparison of in vitro and in vivo human skin responses to consumer products and ingredients with a range of irritancy potential.
Human skin equivalent cultures were investigated as possible pre-clinical skin irritation screens to aid safety assessments for chemicals and product formulations, and to facilitate design of safe and efficient human studies. In vitro responses in human skin equivalent cultures were compared directly to in vivo human skin responses from historic or concurrent skin tests for representative chemicals and products, including surfactants, cosmetics, antiperspirants, and deodorants. The in vivo data consisted of visual scores (i.e., erythema and edema) from skin-patch tests and diary accounts of skin irritation from product-use studies. In the in vitro studies, cornified, air-interfaced human skin cultures (EpiDerm) were evaluated using methods designed to parallel human clinical protocols with topical dosing of neat or diluted test substances to the stratum corneum surface of the skin cultures. The in vitro endpoints have previously been shown to be relevant to human skin irritation in vivo, including the MTT metabolism assay of cell viability, enzyme release (lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase), and inflammatory cytokine expression (Interleukin-1alpha). For surfactants, dose-response curves of MTT cell-viability data clearly distinguished strongly-irritating from milder surfactants and rank-ordered irritancy potential in a manner similar to repeat-application (3x), patch-test results. For the antiperspirant and deodorant products, all the in vitro endpoints correlated well with consumer-reported irritation (r, 0.75-0.94), with Interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) release, showing the greatest capacity to distinguish irritancy over a broad range. IL-1alpha release also showed the best prediction of human skin scores from 14-day cumulative irritancy tests of cosmetic products. These results confirm the potential value of cornified human skin cultures as in vitro pre-clinical screens for prediction of human skin irritation responses. A preliminary report of these results has been published. (+info)