(1/200) Inactivation of both RNA binding and aconitase activities of iron regulatory protein-1 by quinone-induced oxidative stress.
Iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP-1) controls the expression of several mRNAs by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) in their untranslated regions. In iron-replete cells, a 4Fe-4S cluster converts IRP-1 to cytoplasmic aconitase. IRE binding activity is restored by cluster loss in response to iron starvation, NO, or extracellular H2O2. Here, we study the effects of intracellular quinone-induced oxidative stress on IRP-1. Treatment of murine B6 fibroblasts with menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), a redox cycling drug, causes a modest activation of IRP-1 to bind to IREs within 15-30 min. However, IRE binding drops to basal levels within 60 min. Surprisingly, a remarkable loss of both IRE binding and aconitase activities of IRP-1 follows treatment with MSB for 1-2 h. These effects do not result from alterations in IRP-1 half-life, can be antagonized by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, and regulate IRE-containing mRNAs; the capacity of iron-starved MSB-treated cells to increase transferrin receptor mRNA levels is inhibited, and MSB increases the translation of a human growth hormone indicator mRNA bearing an IRE in its 5'-untranslated region. Nonetheless, MSB inhibits ferritin synthesis. Thus, menadione-induced oxidative stress leads to post-translational inactivation of both genetic and enzymatic functions of IRP-1 by a mechanism that lies beyond the "classical" Fe-S cluster switch and exerts multiple effects on cellular iron metabolism. (+info)
(2/200) Iron regulatory protein as an endogenous sensor of iron in rat intestinal mucosa. Possible implications for the regulation of iron absorption.
Duodenal enterocytes adjust intestinal iron absorption to the body's state of iron repletion. Here we tested how iron supply from the blood modulates the RNA-binding activity of iron regulatory proteins (IRP-1 and IRP-2) in immature duodenal rat enterocytes, and whether the modulation is compatible with the hypothesis that IRPs, in turn, may regulate the expression of iron transport proteins in maturating enterocytes during migration to the villus tips. Tissue uptake of parenterally applied 59Fe along the duodenal crypt-villus axis was compared to local IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity and to duodenal 59Fe transport capacity 12 h, 48 h, and 72 h after intravenous iron administration to iron-deficient rats. IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity was significantly increased in iron-deficiency. 59Fe administrated from the blood side was almost exclusively taken up by crypt enterocytes. Accordingly, the activity of IRP-1 decreased at this site 12 h after parenteral iron administration, but remained high at the villus tips. After 48 h the bulk of 59Fe containing enterocytes had migrated to the villus tips. Correspondingly, IRP-1 activity was decreased at duodenal villus tips after 48 h. IRP-2 activity also tended to decrease, though the change was statistically not significant. IRP-2 activity remained significantly higher at duodenal villus tips than in crypts, even after 72 h. Intestinal iron absorption capacity decreased with the same delay as IRP-1 activity after intravenous iron administration. In the ileum 59Fe uptake from the blood and IRP activity showed no significant difference between crypt and villus region. Luminal administration of iron decreased duodenal IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity at tips and crypts within 2 h. Thus, recently absorbed iron becomes available to cytosolic IRP during its passage through the enterocyte. Our results are compatible with a role of IRPs in gearing the expression of intestinal iron transporters in the duodenal brushborder to the body's state of iron repletion. (+info)
(3/200) Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, colocalize with transferrin receptor and up-regulate transferrin receptor mRNA by activating iron-responsive protein 1.
Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. sennetsu are genetically divergent obligatory intracellular bacteria of human monocytes and macrophages, and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent is an obligatory intracellular bacterium of granulocytes. Infection with both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not HGE agent, in the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 almost completely inhibited by treatment with deferoxamine, a cell-permeable iron chelator. Transferrin receptors (TfRs) accumulated on both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not HGE agent, inclusions in THP-1 cells or the cells of the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Reverse transcription-PCR showed an increase in the level of TfR mRNA 6 h postinfection which peaked at 24 h postinfection with both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu infection in THP-1 or HL-60 cells. In contrast, HGE agent in THP-1 or HL-60 cells induced no increase in TfR mRNA levels. Heat treatment of E. chaffeensis or the addition of monodansylcadaverine, a transglutaminase inhibitor, 3 h prior to infection inhibited the up-regulation of TfR mRNA. The addition of oxytetracycline 6 h after E. chaffeensis infection caused a decrease in TfR mRNA which returned to the basal level by 24 h postinfection. These results indicate that both internalization and continuous proliferation of ehrlichial organisms or the production of ehrlichial proteins are required for the up-regulation of TfR mRNA. Results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu infection increased the binding activity of iron-responsive protein 1 (IRP-1) to the iron-responsive element at 6 h postinfection and remained elevated at 24 h postinfection. However, HGE agent infection had no effect on IRP-1 binding activity. This result suggests that activation of IRP-1 and subsequent stabilization of TfR mRNA comprise the mechanism of TfR mRNA up-regulation by E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu infection. (+info)
(4/200) Ligand-induced structural alterations in human iron regulatory protein-1 revealed by protein footprinting.
Human iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP-1) is a bifunctional protein that regulates iron metabolism by binding to mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron uptake, storage, and utilization. Intracellular iron accumulation regulates IRP-1 function by promoting the assembly of an iron-sulfur cluster, conferring aconitase activity to IRP-1, and hindering RNA binding. Using protein footprinting, we have studied the structure of the two functional forms of IRP-1 and have mapped the surface of the iron-responsive element (IRE) binding site. Binding of the ferritin IRE or of the minimal regulatory region of transferrin receptor mRNA induced strong protections against proteolysis in the region spanning amino acids 80 to 187, which are located in the putative cleft thought to be involved in RNA binding. In addition, IRE-induced protections were also found in the C-terminal domain at Arg-721 and Arg-728. These data implicate a bipartite IRE binding site located in the putative cleft of IRP-1. The aconitase form of IRP-1 adopts a more compact structure because strong reductions of cleavage were detected in two defined areas encompassing residues 149 to 187 and 721 to 735. Thus both ligands of apo-IRP-1, the IRE and the 4Fe-4S cluster, induce distinct but overlapping alterations in protease accessibility. These data provide evidences for structural changes in IRP-1 upon cluster formation that affect the accessibility of residues constituting the RNA binding site. (+info)
(5/200) Ultraviolet A radiation induces immediate release of iron in human primary skin fibroblasts: the role of ferritin.
In mammalian cells, the level of the iron-storage protein ferritin (Ft) is tightly controlled by the iron-regulatory protein-1 (IRP-1) at the posttranscriptional level. This regulation prevents iron acting as a catalyst in reactions between reactive oxygen species and biomolecules. The ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation component of sunlight (320-400 nm) has been shown to be a source of oxidative stress to skin via generation of reactive oxygen species. We report here that the exposure of human primary skin fibroblasts, FEK4, to UVA radiation causes an immediate release of "free" iron in the cells via proteolysis of Ft. Within minutes of exposure to a range of doses of UVA at natural exposure levels, the binding activity of IRP-1, as well as Ft levels, decreases in a dose-dependent manner. This decrease coincides with a significant leakage of the lysosomal components into the cytosol. Stabilization of Ft molecules occurs only when cells are pretreated with lysosomal protease inhibitors after UVA treatment. We propose that the oxidative damage to lysosomes that leads to Ft degradation and the consequent rapid release of potentially harmful "free" iron to the cytosol might be a major factor in UVA-induced damage to the skin. (+info)
(6/200) Human cytoplasmic aconitase (Iron regulatory protein 1) is converted into its [3Fe-4S] form by hydrogen peroxide in vitro but is not activated for iron-responsive element binding.
Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) regulates the synthesis of proteins involved in iron homeostasis by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) of messenger RNA. IRP1 is a cytoplasmic aconitase when it contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster and an RNA-binding protein after complete removal of the metal center by an unknown mechanism. Human IRP1, obtained as the pure recombinant [4Fe-4S] form, is an enzyme as efficient toward cis-aconitate as the homologous mitochondrial aconitase. The aconitase activity of IRP1 is rapidly lost by reaction with hydrogen peroxide as the [4Fe-4S] cluster is quantitatively converted into the [3Fe-4S] form with release of a single ferrous ion per molecule. The IRE binding capacity of IRP1 is not elicited with H(2)O(2). Ferrous sulfate (but not other more tightly coordinated ferrous ions, such as the complex with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) counteracts the inhibitory action of hydrogen peroxide on cytoplasmic aconitase, probably by replenishing iron at the active site. These results cast doubt on the ability of reactive oxygen species to directly increase IRP1 binding to IRE and support a signaling role for hydrogen peroxide in the posttranscriptional control of proteins involved in iron homeostasis in vivo. (+info)
(7/200) Iron-dependent regulation of transferrin receptor expression in Trypanosoma brucei.
Transferrin is an essential growth factor for African trypanosomes. Here we show that expression of the trypanosomal transferrin receptor, which bears no structural similarity with mammalian transferrin receptors, is regulated by iron availability. Iron depletion of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei with the iron chelator deferoxamine resulted in a 3-fold up-regulation of the transferrin receptor and a 3-fold increase of the transferrin uptake rate. The abundance of expression site associated gene product 6 (ESAG6) mRNA, which encodes one of the two subunits of the trypanosome transferrin receptor, is regulated 5-fold by a post-transcriptional mechanism. In mammalian cells the stability of transferrin receptor mRNA is controlled by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Therefore, the role of a T. brucei cytoplasmic aconitase (TbACO) that is highly related to mammalian IRP-1 was investigated. Iron regulation of the transferrin receptor was found to be unaffected in Deltaaco::NEO/Deltaaco::HYG null mutants generated by targeted disruption of the TbACO gene. Thus, the mechanism of post-transcriptional transferrin receptor regulation in trypanosomes appears to be distinct from the IRE/IRP paradigm. The transferrin uptake rate was also increased when trypanosomes were transferred from medium supplemented with foetal bovine serum to medium supplemented with sera from other vertebrates. Due to varying binding affinities of the trypanosomal transferrin receptor for transferrins of different species, serum change can result in iron starvation. Thus, regulation of transferrin receptor expression may be a fast compensatory mechanism upon transmission of the parasite to a new host species. (+info)
(8/200) Regulation of iron metabolism in murine J774 macrophages: role of nitric oxide-dependent and -independent pathways following activation with gamma interferon and lipopolysaccharide.
To elucidate the pathways by which nitric oxide (NO) influences macrophage iron metabolism, the uptake, release, and intracellular distribution of iron in the murine macrophage cell line J774 has been investigated, together with transferrin receptor (TfR) expression and iron-regulatory protein (IRP1 and IRP2) activity. Stimulation of macrophages with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased Fe uptake from transferrin (Tf), and there was a concomitant downregulation of TfR expression. These effects were mediated by NO-dependent and NO-independent mechanisms. Addition of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-monomethyl arginine (NMMA) partially restored Fe uptake but either had no effect on or downregulated TfR expression, which suggests that NO by itself is able to affect iron availability. Analysis of the intracellular distribution of incorporated iron revealed that in IFN-gamma/LPS-activated macrophages there was a decreased amount and proportion of ferritin-bound iron and a compensatory increase in insoluble iron, which probably consists mainly of iron bound to intracellular organelles. Finally, although NO released by IFN-gamma/LPS-activated macrophages increased the iron-responsive element (IRE)-binding activity of both IRP1 and IRP2, IFN-gamma treatment decreased IRP2 activity in an NO-independent manner. This study demonstrates that the effect of IFN-gamma and/or LPS on macrophage iron metabolism is complex, and is not entirely due to either NO-or to IRP-mediated mechanisms. The overall effect is to decrease iron uptake, but not its utilization. (+info)