Effects of high compared with low calcium intake on calcium absorption and incorporation of iron by red blood cells in small children.
BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of increasing calcium intake in small children must be balanced with the potential risk to iron utilization from high calcium intakes. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the relation between calcium intake and calcium absorption and iron incorporation into red blood cells. DESIGN: We performed a multitracer, crossover study of the absorption of calcium and red blood cell incorporation of iron in 11 preschool children aged 3-5 y who had been adapted for 5 wk to low- (502 +/- 99 mg) and high- (1180 +/- 117 mg) calcium diets. Stable-isotope studies were performed by using 44Ca and 58Fe given orally with meals and 46Ca given intravenously. RESULTS: Iron incorporation into red blood cells 14 d postdosing was similar (6.9 +/- 4.2% compared with 7.9 +/- 5.5%; NS) with the low- and high-calcium diets, respectively. Total calcium absorption (181 +/- 50 compared with 277 +/- 91 mg/d; P = 0.002) was greater in children with the higher calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that small children may benefit from calcium intakes similar to those recommended for older children without adverse effects on dietary iron utilization. (+info
Iron isotope biosignatures.
The (56)Fe/(54)Fe of Fe-bearing phases precipitated in sedimentary environments varies by 2.5 per mil (delta(56)Fe values of +0.9 to -1. 6 per mil). In contrast, the (56)Fe/(54)Fe of Fe-bearing phases in igneous rocks from Earth and the moon does not vary measurably (delta(56)Fe = 0.0 +/- 0.3 per mil). Experiments with dissimilatory Fe-reducing bacteria of the genus Shewanella algae grown on a ferrihydrite substrate indicate that the delta(56)Fe of ferrous Fe in solution is isotopically lighter than the ferrihydrite substrate by 1.3 per mil. Therefore, the range in delta(56)Fe values of sedimentary rocks may reflect biogenic fractionation, and the isotopic composition of Fe may be used to trace the distribution of microorganisms in modern and ancient Earth. (+info
Less than 80% of absorbed iron is promptly incorporated into erythrocytes of infants.
Erythrocyte incorporation of an administered iron isotope has been used as a surrogate for iron retention on the assumption (validated in normal and iron-deficient adults) that 80-100% of the retained isotope is promptly incorporated into circulating erythrocytes. This assumption has not been validated in infants or children. The purpose of our study was to determine concurrently in normal infants absorption and erythrocyte incorporation of the stable isotope, (58)Fe. In a preliminary study (Study 1), we demonstrated that fecal excretion of ingested isotope occurs predominantly during the first 4 d after administration but continues beyond 7 d after ingestion, that is, beyond the point at which isotope in feces can be explained either by excretion of isotope that failed to enter enterocytes or by exfoliation of isotope-enriched enterocytes. In Study 2, we administered (58)Fe to nine younger (age 20-69 d) and nine older (age 165-215 d) term infants and collected feces for 11 d. Geometric mean retention of (58)Fe by the younger infants was 31.2% of intake at 4 d and 26.9% at 11 d, and by the older infants, 35.0% at 4 d and 32.5% at 11 d. Erythrocyte incorporation of (58)Fe 14 d after ingestion was 5.2% of the dose by the younger infants and 12.5% by the older infants. Utilization of retained (11 d) isotope thus was 19.8% by the younger infants and 38.3% by the older infants. We conclude that far less than 80% of retained isotope is promptly incorporated into erythrocytes (utilized) by infants. (+info
Nonbiological fractionation of iron isotopes.
Laboratory experiments demonstrate that iron isotopes can be chemically fractionated in the absence of biology. Isotopic variations comparable to those seen during microbially mediated reduction of ferrihydrite are observed. Fractionation may occur in aqueous solution during equilibration between inorganic iron complexes. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of iron isotope fractionation and suggest that nonbiological processes may contribute to iron isotope variations observed in sediments. (+info
Iron bioavailability in infants from an infant cereal fortified with ferric pyrophosphate or ferrous fumarate.
BACKGROUND: Infant cereals are commonly fortified with insoluble iron compounds with low relative bioavailability, such as ferric pyrophosphate, because of organoleptic changes that occur after addition of water-soluble iron sources. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare iron bioavailability from ferric pyrophosphate with an alternative iron source that is soluble in dilute acid, ferrous fumarate, and to evaluate the influence of ascorbic acid on iron bioavailability from ferrous fumarate in infants. DESIGN: Iron bioavailability was measured as the incorporation of stable iron isotopes into erythrocytes 14 d after administration of labeled test meals (25 g dry wheat and soy infant cereal, 100 g water, and 2.5 mg Fe as [57Fe]ferric pyrophosphate or [57Fe]ferrous fumarate). Ascorbic acid was added to all test meals (25 mg in study 1 or 25 or 50 mg in study 2). Infants were fed each test meal on 4 consecutive days under standardized conditions. The 2 different test meals within each study were administered 2 wk apart in a crossover design. RESULTS: Geometric mean iron bioavailability was significantly higher from [57Fe]ferrous fumarate than from [57Fe]ferric pyrophosphate [4.1% (range: 1.7-14.7%) compared with 1.3% (range: 0. 7-2.7%); n = 8, P = 0.008]. In this study, doubling the ascorbic acid content did not further enhance iron bioavailability; the geometric means (range) were 3.4% (1.9-6.6%) and 4.2% (1.2-18.7%) for the test meals with 25 and 50 mg ascorbic acid added, respectively (n = 9). CONCLUSION: Iron bioavailability from iron-fortified infant cereals can be improved by using an iron compound with high relative bioavailability and by ensuring adequate ascorbic acid content of the product. (+info
Intermediates in the reaction of substrate-free cytochrome P450cam with peroxy acetic acid.
Freeze-quenched intermediates of substrate-free cytochrome 57Fe-P450(cam) in reaction with peroxy acetic acid as oxidizing agent have been characterized by EPR and Mossbauer spectroscopy. After 8 ms of reaction time the reaction mixture consists of approximately 90% of ferric low-spin iron with g-factors and hyperfine parameters of the starting material; the remaining approximately 10% are identified as a free radical (S' = 1/2) by its EPR and as an iron(IV) (S= 1) species by its Mossbauer signature. After 5 min of reaction time the intermediates have disappeared and the Mossbauer and EPR-spectra exhibit 100% of the starting material. We note that the spin-Hamiltonian analysis of the spectra of the 8 ms reactant clearly reveals that the two paramagnetic species, e.g. the ferryl (iron(IV)) species and the radical, are not exchanged coupled. This led to the conclusion that under the conditions used, peroxy acetic acid oxidized a tyrosine residue (probably Tyr-96) into a tyrosine radical (Tyr*-96), and the iron(III) center of substrate-free P450(cam) to iron(IV). (+info
Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme-iron absorption.
BACKGROUND: Phenolic compounds act as food antioxidants. One of the postulated mechanisms of action is chelation of prooxidant metals, such as iron. Although the antioxidative effect is desirable, this mechanism may impair the utilization of dietary iron. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. DESIGN: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1; n = 10) or rosemary (study 2; n = 14). The extracts (0.1 mmol) were added to the meat component of the test meals. The meals were extrinsically labeled with either 55Fe or 59Fe and were consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order ABBA or BAAB. Iron absorption was determined by measuring whole-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of 55Fe to 59Fe activity in blood samples. RESULTS: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P < 0.01) in the presence of green tea extract and from 7.5 +/- 4.0% to 6.4 +/- 4.7% (P < 0.05) in the presence of rosemary extract. CONCLUSION: Phenolic-rich extracts used as antioxidants in foods reduce the utilization of dietary iron. (+info
Histidine content of low-molecular-weight beef proteins influences nonheme iron bioavailability in Caco-2 cells.
The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize beef muscle proteins that enhance nonheme iron bioavailability. Beef sirloin was cooked, lyophilized and reconstituted with water before in vitro digestion. After centrifugation, the digest supernatant was sequentially ultrafiltered using 10- and 1-kDa molecular weight cut-off membranes. Nonheme iron bioavailability was assessed by Caco-2 cell monolayer (59)Fe uptake using an extrinsic labeling method. All ultrafiltration fractions significantly (P < 0.001) increased iron solubility at pH 6.0, compared with the blank. However, iron uptake was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the blank only in the presence of the 1-kDa retentate (1KR). Therefore, the 1KR was chosen for further analysis. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) of the 1KR yielded four fractions, i.e., three distinct fractions (F1, F3, F4) and one fraction (F2) comprised of a few closely associated peaks. All four IMAC fractions resulted in significantly (P < 0.001) greater (two- to fivefold) iron solubility at pH 6.0, compared with the blank. Iron uptake with F2 and F4 was significantly greater than the blank (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis illustrated that F1-F4 contained many peptides ranging from 1- to 7-kDa. Amino acid composition analysis revealed that histidine concentration increased progressively from F1 to F4, corresponding to a general, but not parallel increase in iron solubility and uptake. Our results suggest that the enhancement of nonheme iron absorption by beef may be due to peptides produced during gastrointestinal digestion and that histidine content may be important. (+info