Virus susceptibility of the fish cell line SAF-1 derived from gilt-head seabream.
The recently reported SAF-1 cell line from fins of gilt-head seabream was evaluated for susceptibility to lymphocystis disease virus (LDV) and to several salmonid fish viruses, such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and several strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). LDV, VHSV and IHNV replicated well in the cultured fin cells as demonstrated by cell lysis and increases in viral titer. The potential use of this cell line to detect viruses from fish marine species is discussed. (+info)
Phylogenetic position of the Diadromus pulchellus ascovirus DNA polymerase among viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes.
The ASCOVIRIDAE: is a family of large double-stranded (ds) DNA insect viruses that contains four species, the Spodoptera frugiperda (SfAV1), Trichoplusia ni (TnAV2), Heliothis virescens (HvAV3) and Diadromus pulchellus (DpAV4) ascoviruses. These are unique among insect viruses in that the primary means of transmission among their lepidopteran hosts is generally by being vectored mechanically by hymenopteran parasitoids. Ascoviruses are similar in virion structure, but their relationships with their parasitoid vectors vary from being opportunistic to obligate. Little is known, however, about the relatedness of these viruses to one another or to other large dsDNA viruses. We therefore cloned and sequenced the delta DNA polymerase gene of DpAV4, characterized it and compared it to 59 eukaryotic and viral delta and epsilon DNA polymerases. Phylogenetic analyses based on these genes revealed that the ascoviruses DpAV4 and SfAV1 formed a group of virus species distinct from, but closely related to, species of the family IRIDOVIRIDAE: Detailed analyses of the relatedness of ascovirus species based on conserved delta DNA polymerase motifs showed two groups within the family ASCOVIRIDAE:, one containing DpAV4 and the other containing SfAV1, TnAV2 and HvAV3, which was consistent with their host-vector relationships. Despite significant differences in capsid symmetry between ascoviruses and iridoviruses, these results suggest that these viruses may have originated from a common ancestral virus. (+info)
Sequence analysis of the complete genome of an iridovirus isolated from the tiger frog.
We have isolated a tiger frog virus (TFV) from diseased tiger frogs, Rana tigrina rugulosa. The genome was a linear double-stranded DNA of 105,057 basepairs in length with a base composition of 55.01% G+C. About 105 open reading frames were identified with coding capacities for polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1294 amino acids. Computer-assisted analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 39 of 105 putative gene products showed significant homology to functionally characterized proteins of other species in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases. These proteins included enzymes and structural proteins involved in virus replication, transcription, modification, and virus--host interaction. The deduced amino acid sequences of TFV gene products showed more than 90% identity to FV3, but a low degree of similarity among TFV, ISKNV, and LCDV-1. The results from this study indicated that TFV may belong to the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae. (+info)
Development and characterization of a model system to study amphibian immune responses to iridoviruses.
The recent realization that viruses within the family Iridoviridae may contribute to the worldwide decline in amphibians makes it urgent to understand amphibian antiviral immune defenses. We present evidence that establishes the frog Xenopus laevis as an important model with which to study anti-iridovirus immunity. Adults resist high doses of FV3 infection, showing only transitory signs of pathology. By contrast, naturally MHC class-I-deficient tadpoles are highly susceptible to FV3 infection. Monitoring of viral DNA by PCR indicates a preferential localization of FV3 DNA in the kidney, with the inbred MHC homozygous J strain appearing to be more susceptible. Clearance of virus as measured by detection of FV3 DNA and also the disappearance of pathological and behavioral symptoms of infection, acceleration of viral clearance, and detection of IgY anti-FV3 antibodies after a second injection of FV3 are all consistent with the involvement of both cellular and humoral adaptive antiviral immune responses. (+info)
Phylogenetic analysis and possible function of bro-like genes, a multigene family widespread among large double-stranded DNA viruses of invertebrates and bacteria.
Baculovirus repeated open reading frame (bro) genes and their relatives constitute a multigene family, typically with multiple copies per genome, known to occur among certain insect dsDNA viruses and bacteriophages. Little is known about the evolutionary history and function of the proteins encoded by these genes. Here we have shown that bro and bro-like (bro-l) genes occur among viruses of two additional invertebrate viral families, Ascoviridae and Iridoviridae, and in prokaryotic class II transposons. Analysis of over 100 sequences showed that the N-terminal region, consisting of two subdomains, is the most conserved region and contains a DNA-binding motif that has been characterized previously. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these proteins are distributed among eight groups, Groups 1-7 consisting of invertebrate virus proteins and Group 8 of proteins in bacteriophages and bacterial transposons. No bro genes were identified in databases of invertebrate or vertebrate genomes, vertebrate viruses and transposons, nor in prokaryotic genomes, except in prophages or transposons of the latter. The phylogenetic relationship between bro genes suggests that they have resulted from recombination of viral genomes that allowed the duplication and loss of genes, but also the acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer over evolutionary time. In addition, the maintenance and diversity of bro-l genes in different types of invertebrate dsDNA viruses, but not in vertebrate viruses, suggests that these proteins play an important role in invertebrate virus biology. Experiments with the unique orf2 bro gene of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus showed that it is not required for replication, but may enhance replication during the occlusion phase of reproduction. (+info)
Expansion of the mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/plant dihydroflavonol reductase superfamily to include a bacterial cholesterol dehydrogenase, a bacterial UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, and open reading frames in vaccinia virus and fish lymphocystis disease virus.
Mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and plant dihydroflavonol reductases are descended from a common ancestor. Here we present evidence that Nocardia cholesterol dehydrogenase, E. coli UDP-galactose-4 epimerase, and open reading frames in vaccinia virus and fish lymphocystis disease virus are homologous to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and dihydroflavonol reductase. Analysis of a multiple alignment of these sequences indicates that viral ORFs are most closely related to the mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The ancestral protein of this superfamily is likely to be one that metabolized sugar nucleotides. The sequence similarity between 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the viral ORFs is sufficient to suggest that these ORFs have an activity that is similar to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase or cholesterol dehydrogenase, although the putative substrates are not yet known. (+info)
Infection and propagation of lymphocystis virus isolated from the cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in grass carp cell lines.
The causative agent of lymphocystis disease that frequently occurs in cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in China is lymphocystis virus (LV). In this study, 13 fish cell lines were tested for their susceptibility to LV. Of these, 2 cell lines derived from the freshwater grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus proved susceptible to the LV, and 1 cell line, GCO (grass carp ovary), was therefore used to replicate and propagate the virus. An obvious cytopathic effect (CPE) was first observed in cell monolayers at 1 d post-inoculation, and at 3 d this had extended to about 75% of the cell monolayer. However, no further CPE extension was observed after 4 d. Cytopathic characteristics induced by the LV were detected by Giemsa staining and fluorescence microscopic observation with Hoechst 33258 staining. The propagated virus particles were also observed by electron microscopy. Ultrastructure analysis revealed several distinct cellular changes, such as chromatin compaction and margination, vesicle formation, cell-surface convolution, nuclear fragmentation and the occurrence of characteristic 'blebs' and cell fusion. This study provides a detailed report of LV infection and propagation in a freshwater fish cell line, and presents direct electron microscopy evidence for propagation of the virus in infected cells. A possible process by which the CPEs are controlled is suggested. (+info)
Comparative genomic analyses of frog virus 3, type species of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae).
Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species member of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae). To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the replication of FV3, including transcription of its highly methylated DNA genome, we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the FV3 genome. The FV3 genome is 105903 bp long excluding the terminal redundancy. The G + C content of FV3 genome is 55% and it encodes 98 nonoverlapping potential open reading frames (ORFs) containing 50-1293 amino acids. Eighty-four ORFs have significant homology to known proteins of other iridoviruses, whereas twelve of these unique FV3 proteins do not share homology to any known protein. A microsatellite containing a stretch of 34 tandemly repeated CA dinucleotide in a noncoding region was detected. To date, no such sequence has been reported in any animal virus. (+info)