Evaluation of the in-vivo activity and toxicity of amarogentin, an antileishmanial agent, in both liposomal and niosomal forms.
The antileishmanial property of amarogentin, a secoiridoid glycoside isolated from the Indian medicinal plant Swertia chirata, was examined in a hamster model of experimental leishmaniasis. The therapeutic efficacy of amarogentin was evaluated in free and two different vesicular forms, liposomes and niosomes. The amarogentin in both liposomal and niosomal forms was found to be a more active leishmanicidal agent than the free amarogentin; and the niosomal form was found to be more efficacious than the liposomal form at the same membrane microviscosity level. Toxicity studies involving blood pathology, histological staining of tissues and specific enzyme levels related to normal liver function showed no toxicity. Hence, amarogentin incorporated in liposomes or niosomes may have clinical application in the treatment of leishmaniasis. (+info)
Fast repair of dAMP radical anions by phenylpropanoid glycosides and their analogs.
Repair effect on 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (dAMP) radical anions by phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs) and their analogs, isolated from Chinese folk medicinal herb, was studied using pulse radiolysis technique. The radical anion of dAMP was formed by the reaction of hydrated electron with dAMP. On pulse irradiation of nitrogen-saturated dAMP aqueous solution containing 0.2 M t-BuOH and one of PPGs or their analogs, the transient absorption spectrum of the radical anion of dAMP decayed with the formation of that of the radical anion of PPGs or their analogs within several decades of microseconds after electron pulse irradiation. The results indicated that dAMP radical anions can be repaired by PPGs or their analogs. The rate constants of the repair reactions were deduced to be 1.6-4.5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). (+info)
Iridoids and phenylethanoids of Verbena bipinnatifida nutt.
Iridoids and phenylethanoids were separated from Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. (Verbenaceae). The compounds identified are pulchelloside I and II--iridoids and martynoside, verbascoside-phenylethanoids. The structures of all the compounds isolated were elucidated by classical and spectroscopic methods. (+info)
Analysis of swertiamarin in Swertia herb and preparations containing this crude drug by capillary electrophoresis.
Swertia herb (florescent whole plantof Swertia japonica, Gentianaceae) has long been utilized as a folk medicine in Japan. It is often blended in general gastroenteric drugs as a bitter stomachic. Swertiamarin, a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, is the representative constituent of this crude drug and Swertia herb is normally evaluated by the swertiamarin content. To date, papers have described the discrimination of Swertia herbs from other bitter crude drugs, estimation of swertiamarin and seasonal variation in swertiamarin content using thin-layer chromatography, while other papers have reported quantitative determination of swertiamarin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In our previous papers, we reported analyses of the constituents of some crude drugs using capillary electrophoresis (CE). To aid in the evaluation of crude drugs, we succeeded in our attempt to separate and determine the quantity of swertiamarin in Swertia herb. Subsequently, we applied the same analytical condition to estimate the swertiamarin contents in Japanese pharmacopoeia stomachic preparations, in OTC gastroenteric drugs and in OTC hair tonics containing Swertia herb. (+info)
In vitro evaluation of secoiridoid glucosides from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum as antiviral agents.
Six secoiridoid glucosides, lucidumoside C (1), oleoside dimethylester (2), neonuezhenide (3), oleuropein (4), ligustroside (5) and lucidumoside A (6), isolated from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae), were examined in vitro for their activities against four strains of pathogenic viruses, namely herpes simplex type I virus (HSV-1), influenza type A virus (Flu A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza type 3 virus (Para 3). Antiviral activities were evaluated by the cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibitory assay. The purpose was to check if the antioxidative potency of these glucosides correlated with their antiviral potency. Results showed that none of the glucosides had any significant activity against HSV-1 and Flu A. Oleuropein, however, showed significant antiviral activities against RSV and Para 3 with IC50 value of 23.4 and 11.7 microg/ml, respectively. Lucidumoside C, oleoside dimethylester and ligustroside showed potent or moderate antiviral activities against Para 3 with IC50 values of 15.6-20.8 microg/ml. These results also documented that the anti-oxidative potency of these secoiriodoid glucosides was not directly related to their antiviral effects. (+info)
A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba.
Himatanthus sucuuba is an Amazonian tree with abundant, yet conflicting ethnobotanical information. Investigation of the polar and non-polar constituents led to the isolation of plumericin, a bioactive spirolactone iridoid, and four known pentacylic triterpenes: lupeol acetate, lupeol cinnamate, lupeol beta-phenyl propionate, and alpha-amyrin cinnamate. (+info)
De novo regeneration of Scrophularia yoshimurae Yamazaki (Scrophulariaceae) and quantitative analysis of harpagoside, an iridoid glucoside, formed in aerial and underground parts of in vitro propagated and wild plants by HPLC.
A protocol for de novo regeneration and rapid micropropagation of Scrophularia yoshimurae (Scrophulariaceae) has been developed. Multiple shoot development was achieved by culturing the shoot-tip, leaf-base, stem-node and stem-internode explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 microM N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.07 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Stem-node and shoot-tip explants showed the highest response (100%) followed by stem-internode (74.4%) and leaf-base (7.7%) explants. The shoots were multiplied by subculturing on the same medium used for shoot induction. Shoots were rooted on growth regulator-free MS basal medium and the plantlets were transplanted to soil and acclimatized in the growth chamber. The content of harpagoside, a quantitatively predominant iridoid glycoside, in different plant material was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis revealed that the content of harpagoside in the aerial and underground parts of S. yoshimurae was significantly higher than the marketed crude drug (underground parts of Scrophularia ningpoensis). (+info)
Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng.
The bark and leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv (Eucommiaceae) and "Siberian ginseng" (Ezoukogi in Japanese) prepared from the root bark or stem bark of Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim (Acanthopanax senticosus Harms) have been used as tonic and anti-stress drug. The extracts of Eucommia showed anti-hypertensive, anti-complementary, anti-oxidative, and anti-gastric ulcer effects, and promoting collagen synthesis, accelating granuloma formation, and other pharmacological effects. The Siberian ginseng exhibited anti-fatigue, anti-stress, immuno-enhancing effect, CNS activity, and anti-depressive effect. By now, 40, 28, and 10 compounds have been isolated from Eucommia ulmoides bark, Eucommia ulmoides leaves, and Siberian ginseng, respectively, and their structures were elucidated. Their pharmacological activities were mainly due to lignans and iridoid glycosides. (+info)