Fast repair of dAMP radical anions by phenylpropanoid glycosides and their analogs.
Repair effect on 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (dAMP) radical anions by phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs) and their analogs, isolated from Chinese folk medicinal herb, was studied using pulse radiolysis technique. The radical anion of dAMP was formed by the reaction of hydrated electron with dAMP. On pulse irradiation of nitrogen-saturated dAMP aqueous solution containing 0.2 M t-BuOH and one of PPGs or their analogs, the transient absorption spectrum of the radical anion of dAMP decayed with the formation of that of the radical anion of PPGs or their analogs within several decades of microseconds after electron pulse irradiation. The results indicated that dAMP radical anions can be repaired by PPGs or their analogs. The rate constants of the repair reactions were deduced to be 1.6-4.5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). (+info)
Iridoids and phenylethanoids of Verbena bipinnatifida nutt.
Iridoids and phenylethanoids were separated from Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. (Verbenaceae). The compounds identified are pulchelloside I and II--iridoids and martynoside, verbascoside-phenylethanoids. The structures of all the compounds isolated were elucidated by classical and spectroscopic methods. (+info)
Analysis of swertiamarin in Swertia herb and preparations containing this crude drug by capillary electrophoresis.
Swertia herb (florescent whole plantof Swertia japonica, Gentianaceae) has long been utilized as a folk medicine in Japan. It is often blended in general gastroenteric drugs as a bitter stomachic. Swertiamarin, a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, is the representative constituent of this crude drug and Swertia herb is normally evaluated by the swertiamarin content. To date, papers have described the discrimination of Swertia herbs from other bitter crude drugs, estimation of swertiamarin and seasonal variation in swertiamarin content using thin-layer chromatography, while other papers have reported quantitative determination of swertiamarin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In our previous papers, we reported analyses of the constituents of some crude drugs using capillary electrophoresis (CE). To aid in the evaluation of crude drugs, we succeeded in our attempt to separate and determine the quantity of swertiamarin in Swertia herb. Subsequently, we applied the same analytical condition to estimate the swertiamarin contents in Japanese pharmacopoeia stomachic preparations, in OTC gastroenteric drugs and in OTC hair tonics containing Swertia herb. (+info)
Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng.
The bark and leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv (Eucommiaceae) and "Siberian ginseng" (Ezoukogi in Japanese) prepared from the root bark or stem bark of Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim (Acanthopanax senticosus Harms) have been used as tonic and anti-stress drug. The extracts of Eucommia showed anti-hypertensive, anti-complementary, anti-oxidative, and anti-gastric ulcer effects, and promoting collagen synthesis, accelating granuloma formation, and other pharmacological effects. The Siberian ginseng exhibited anti-fatigue, anti-stress, immuno-enhancing effect, CNS activity, and anti-depressive effect. By now, 40, 28, and 10 compounds have been isolated from Eucommia ulmoides bark, Eucommia ulmoides leaves, and Siberian ginseng, respectively, and their structures were elucidated. Their pharmacological activities were mainly due to lignans and iridoid glycosides. (+info)
Scropolioside-D2 and harpagoside-B: two new iridoid glycosides from Scrophularia deserti and their antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activity.
Five iridoid glycosides, including the two new compounds scropolioside-D(2) (1) and harpagoside-B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Scrophularia deserti DEL (Scrophulariaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data to be 6-O-[2",4"-di-O-acetyl-3"-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-8 alpha-hydroxymethyl-1 alpha,5 beta,6 alpha,7 alpha,9 beta-pentahydro-7(8)-epoxy-2-oxaind-3-ene-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-6'-O-acetate (1) and 5-O-beta-hydroxy-8-O-beta-trans-cinnamoyl-8 alpha-methyl-1,6,7,9-tetrahydro-2-oxaind-3-ene-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), respectively. In addition, three more iridoid glycosides, scropolioside-D (3), koelzioside (4), and 8-O-acetyl-harpagide (5), were also isolated and characterized from this source. The biological activity and the structure activity relationship of the compounds were also studied, and scropolioside-D (3) and harpagoside-B (2) were found to possess significant antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activity, respectively. (+info)
Biosynthesis of camptothecin. In silico and in vivo tracer study from [1-13C]glucose.
Camptothecin derivatives are clinically used antitumor alkaloids that belong to monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. In this study, we investigated the biosynthetic pathway of camptothecin from [1-13C]glucose (Glc) by in silico and in vivo studies. The in silico study measured the incorporation of Glc into alkaloids using the Atomic Reconstruction of Metabolism software and predicted the labeling patterns of successive metabolites from [1-13C]Glc. The in vivo study followed incorporation of [1-13C]Glc into camptothecin with hairy roots of Ophiorrhiza pumila by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The 13C-labeling pattern of camptothecin isolated from the hairy roots clearly showed that the monoterpene-secologanin moiety was synthesized via the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway, not via the mevalonate pathway. This conclusion was supported by differential inhibition of camptothecin accumulation by the pathway-specific inhibitors (fosmidomycin and lovastatin). The quinoline moiety from tryptophan was also labeled as predicted by the Atomic Reconstruction of Metabolism program via the shikimate pathway. These results indicate that camptothecin is formed by the combination of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the shikimate pathway. This study provides the innovative example for how a computer-aided comprehensive metabolic analysis will refine the experimental design to obtain more precise biological information. (+info)
Inhibitory effect of picroside II on hepatocyte apoptosis.
AIM: To investigate the influence of picroside II on hepatocyte apoptosis and its mechanism. METHODS: Morphological changes and quantification of apoptotic cells were determined under transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry respectively. DNA fragmentation was visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of bcl-2 and bax genes. The content of manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver mitochondria was detected by the Marland method. The content of malonic aldehyde (MDA) and the protein level in liver tissue were determined by thiobarbituric acid colorimetry and Lowry method. RESULTS: Picroside II decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum resulting from acute-liver injured mice induced with D-GalN and LPS; it also reduced the content of MDA, and thus, enhanced the activity of SOD. Picroside II 10 mg/kg was found to protect hepatocytes against apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner; it up-regulated the expression of bcl-2 genes, thus increased the bcl-2/bax ratio. CONCLUSION: Picroside II can protect hepatocytes against injury and prevent hepatocytes from apoptosis. It might by upregulating the bcl-2 gene expression and antioxidation. (+info)
Anti-lipid peroxidation and protection of liver mitochondria against injuries by picroside II.
AIM: To investigate the anti-lipid peroxidation and protection of liver mitochondria against injuries in mice with liver damage by picroside II. METHODS: Three animal models of liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4): 0.1 mL/10 g, ip), D-galactosamine (D-GalN: 500 mg/kg, ip) and acetaminophen (AP: 0.15 g/kg, ip) were respectively treated with various concentrations of picroside II (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, ig). Then we chose the continuously monitoring method (recommended by International Clinical Chemistry League) to analyze serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, Marland method to detect the activity of manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver mitochondria, TBA colorimetry to determine the content of malonicdialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissue, DTNB method to evaluate the activity of glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px) and Lowry method to detect protein level in liver tissue. Meanwhile, effects of picroside II on the activity of ATPase and swelling extent of mitochondria in hepatocytes damaged by AP were also evaluated. RESULTS: Picroside II could significantly prevent liver toxicity in the three models of liver damage. It decreased the high levels of ALT and AST in serum induced by the administration of CCl(4), D-GalN and AP, reduced the cellular damage of liver markedly, and appeared to be even more potent than the positive control drug of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate pilules (DDB). In groups treated with different doses of picroside II, compared to the model group, the content of MDA in serum decreased evidently, whereas the content of SOD and GSH-Px increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the difference was statistically significant. Further, in the study of AP model, picroside II inhibited AP-induced liver toxicity in mice, enhanced the activity of ATPase, improved the swelling extent of mitochondria and helped to maintain a normal balance of energy metabolism. CONCLUSION: Picroside II can evidently relieve hepatocyte injuries induced by CCl(4), D-GalN and AP, help scavenge free radicals, protect normal constructions of mitochondria membrane and enhance the activity of ATPase in mitochondria, thereby modulating the balance of liver energy metabolism, which might be part of the mechanisms of hepatoprotective effects of picroside II. (+info)