Subunit structure of 27 S thyroid iodoprotein.
The dissociation of thyroid 27 S iodoprotein by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and by succinic anhydride was investigated by means of ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The iodoprotein obtained from either a human or hog was dissociated into three kinds of subunits (S-19, S-17 and S-12) by SDS treatment. At increased concentrations of SDS, the S-12 subunit was predominant among the dissociation products. The succinylation of 27 S iodoprotein showed essentially the same dissociation pattern as in the case of SDS treatment. This dissociation products of the protein preparations of different animals were qualitatively the same as those of thyroglobulin of the respective animals, confirming the hypothesis that 27 S iodoprotein was composed of two molecules of thyroglobulin. However, the extent of dissociation of 27 S iodoprotein measured by S-12 formation showed higher resistancy of the protein to the dissociating agents than that of thyroglobulin. The contents of sialic acid and hexose as well as iodoamino acids of 27 S iodoprotein were found to be the same as, or not far from, those of thyroglobulin; The dissociability and chemical composition of 27 S iodoprotein was discussed with reference to the subunit structure of the protein. (+info)
Radiation dose to the testes after 131I therapy for ablation of postsurgical thyroid remnants in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
Radioiodine-131 is used in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) for ablation of postsurgical thyroid remnants and destruction of metastases. The question may be raised of whether 131I treatment of DTC in male patients may give an irradiation dose to the testes that could impair fertility. Few data in the literature concern the dose absorbed by the testes after 1311 therapy for DTC. Because 131I kinetics may be altered by the hypothyroid condition commonly present at the time of treatment and by the radioiodinated iodoproteins released by the damaged thyroid tissue, the dose values reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) tables for euthyroid men may not be appropriate. To clarify this problem, three male subjects undergoing 131I therapy for ablation of thyroid remnants shortly after thyroidectomy for DTC were studied. METHODS: The mean administered activity was 1256 MBq, and the duration of the study was 2 wk. The gamma dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) applied to the lower poles of the testes. Correction factors were calculated for the distance of the TLD from the center of the testes and for attenuation by the testes of the gamma rays reaching the TLD. After correction, the gamma dose to the testes ranged from 21 to 29 mGy. The gamma dose calculated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) method from blood and urine samples was similar (18-20 mGy) to that measured by TLDs. The beta dose was estimated by the MIRD method from blood activity and testicular volume and ranged between 14 and 31 mGy. RESULTS: The total (beta and gamma) doses to testes were 30, 33 and 43 microGy/MBq in the three subjects. CONCLUSION: These values are close to those derived from the ICRP tables (26-37 microGy/MBq 131I) for euthyroid subjects. The present data indicate that significant irradiation is delivered to the testes after the administration of the 131I ablative dose to thyroidectomized patients. The relevance of the radiation absorbed by testes on fertility remains to be established. (+info)
Radioimmune determination of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase crossreacting material in erythrocytes of Lesch-Nyhan patients.
We have developed a sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting and quantitating 20 ng of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 22.214.171.124; IMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase) protein. For this assay, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase from human erythrocytes was iodinated with 125I under mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide and lactoperoxidase attached to Sepharose-4B. Antisera prepared against homogeneous human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase precipitates the iodinated enzyme as effectively as the unlabeled enzyme. The radioimmunoassay has been used to look for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase crossreacting material in hemolysates from sixteen different patients with a marked genetic deficiency of this enzyme characteristic of the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Fifteen hemolysates contained no detectable (less than 1% of normal) crossreacting material. One hemolysate contained a normal amount of crossreacting material. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase from this patient (E.S.) has been shown to be a Km mutant enzyme. (+info)
On the mechanism of cytolysis by complement: evidence on insertion of C5b and C7 subunits of the C5b,6,7 complex into phospholipid bilayers of erythrocyte membranes.
The doughnut hypothesis of cytolysis by complement [Mayer, M. M. (1972) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 2954-2958] describes an annular structure made up of C5b-9 (complement factors C5b, C6, C7, C8, and C9) which becomes inserted in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus creating a hole. We now present initial explorations of this hypothesis. EAC1-6 and EAC1-7 (sheep erythrocytes carrying rabbit antibody and complement factors C1 through C6 or C1 through C7, respectively), prepared with either 125I-C3 or 125I-C5 were incubated with trypsin and the release of bound 125I was measured. In the case of 125I-C3, all of the radioactivity was released by trypsin from both intermediates. With 125I-C5, trypsin released all of the 125I from EAC1-6, but only 40-55% from EAC1-7. Possible reasons for resistance of the C5b subunit in EAC1-7 to tryptic digestion are discussed; in terms of the doughnut hypothesis it would be due to shielding by lipid molecules as a consequence of insertion into the lipid bilayer. In accord with this interpretation we have also found that C5b in EAC1-7, but not in EAC1-6, resists elution by 0.3 M NaC1. Similarly, we have found that 125I-C7 in EAC1-7 resists stripping by trypsin. Hence, we now propose the hypothesis that hydrophobic polypeptide chains from the C5b and the C7 subunits of C5b,6,7 complex become inserted in the phospholipid bilayer and that subsequent reactions with C8 and C9 open a channel across the membrane. (+info)
Chemical inactivation of Escherichia coli 30-S ribosomes by iodination. Identification of proteins involved in tRNA binding.
30-S ribosomal subunits are inactivated by iodination for both enzymic fMet-tRNA and non-enzymic Phe-tRNA binding activities. This inactivation is due to modification of the protein moiety of the ribosome. Reconstitutions were performed with 16-S RNA and mixtures of total protein isolated from modified subunits and purified proteins isolated from unmodified subunits. This allowed identification of the individual proteins which restore tRNA binding activity. S3, S14 and S19 were identified as proteins involved in fMet-tRNA binding. S1, S2, S3, S14 and S19 were identified as proteins involved in Phe-tRNA binding. Modified particles shown normal sedimentation constants and complete protein compositions both before and after reconstitution. This suggests that the loss of activity is due to modification of one or more of the actual binding sites located on the 30-S subunit and that restoration of activity is due to structural correction at this site rather than to correction of an assembly defect. (+info)
Molecular changes associated with proteolysis of bovine factor V by thrombin.
Native factor V contains two major polypeptide chains, h and 1. The molecular weights determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate and dithiothreitol (125 000 and 73 000) are in reasonable agreement with those obtained by gel filtration in 5 M guanidine-HC1 (125000 and 64000). Exposure of factor V to thrombin results in cleavage of the heavier chain to an altered form with a molecular weight of 87000. The other fragment of this proteolytic reaction appears to be a carbohydrate-rich piece, which migrates abnormally slowly on gel electrophoresis conducted under denaturing and reducing conditions. Both proteolytic cleavage products remain associated with the light chain during the purification of factor V. The 87000-Mr fragment is present in samples of factor V which are isolated by immunoprecipitation of blood obtained from a single animal by venous catheter. This finding suggests that some proteolysis may occur in vivo. In contrast, the molecular weight of the light chain is unaltered after thrombin proteolysis of either purified factor V or thrombin-treated plasma. (+info)
The effect of iodide administration on hog thyroid gland and the composition of thyroglobulin and 27-S iodoprotein.
The effect of excess iodide on hog thyroid gland has been examined with regard to the change in the chemical composition of thyroglobulin and in the accumulation of 27-S iodoprotein by the in vivo treatment of hogs with iodide for various lengths of time. The iodine content of thyroglobulin was either unchanged by short term administration of excess iodide, or somewhat lowered. However, the iodine content as well as the total amount of thyroglobulin increased in the glands enlarged by prolonged treatment with iodide. The iodine highest reached 1.17% of the protein on an average. On the other hand, 27-S iodoprotein decreased and finally disappeared after the chronic treatment. Monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine increased in parallel with the increase in the iodine content (0.15 to 1.17%) caused by the iodide treatment, while thyroxine increased but reached a plateau at the level of three residues per mole of thyroglobulin, and no change was observed even in the proteins with the higher iodine content than 0.75%. Proteolytic activity measured by amino acid release from the thyroid protein was depressed by the chronic treatment. On the other hand, the amount of iodocompound released by the autoproteolysis, which may reflect hormone secretion, increased, possibly because of the marked increase in the iodine content of thyroglobulin. (+info)
Effect of selective nitration of ovine lutropin on the subunit association and biological activity of the hormone.
Different nitrated lutropin (LH) subunits were tested for their abilities to recombine with their counterpart subunits. (A detailed description of the preparations tested is presented in the preceding paper (Burleigh, B. D., Liu, W.K., and Ward, D.N. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 308-315).) The results indicated that the fully nitrated beta subunit of ovine LH (oLHBeta) (diatyrosyl oHbeta) can combine with the alpha subunit of ovine LH (oLHalpha) as wen which tyrosine residues alpha21, alpha41, alpha93 are modified) recombined partially with oLHbeta yielding about 40% as recombined product under specified recombination conditions. The fully nitrated oLHalpha (pentaatyrosyl oLH) combined poorly with oLHbeta and only 20 to 25% was obtained as the recombined product. The various nitrated LH and recombined LH derivatives containing separately nitrated subunits were tested for their potency in an in vitro radioligand assay and their in vivo biological potency in the ovarian ascorbic acid depletion assay. In the radioligand assay, the monoatyrosyl oLH and the oLHalpha + diatyrosyl oLHbeta were the most active derivatives and had about the same competitive inhibtion curves as that of oLHalpha + oLHbeta. Diatyrosyl oLH had intermediate native potency and the triatyrosyl oLH, tetraatyrosyl oLH + OLHbeta, and pentaatyrosyl oLHalpha + oLHbeta were the least active derivatives in this series. No tetranitromethane-modified LH derivative in our study was completely devoid of the specific binding activity in the radioligand assay. At a dosage of 1000-fold excess over the 125I-labeled oH, all the preparations tested in this series completely inhibited the specific binding of 125I-labeled oLH to the hormone receptors in rat testis preparations. In the in vivo ovarian ascorbic acid depletion assay, both the monoatyrosyl oLH and oLHalpha + diatyrosyl oLHbeta retained about 50% of its original activity; the diatyrosyl oLH and triatyrosyl oLH had about 10% of the activity and the recombined products of tetraatyrosyl oHalpha + oLHbeta and pentaatyrosyl oLHalpha + oLHbeta showed virtually no activity. Based on the results obtained from this paper and the preceding paper, the role of the individual tyrosine residues in oLH is assessed. (+info)