The novel tubulin-binding drug BTO-956 inhibits R3230AC mammary carcinoma growth and angiogenesis in Fischer 344 rats.
BTO-956 [methyl-3,5-diiodo-4-(4'-methoxyphenoxy)benzoate], a novel tubulin-binding drug and thyroid hormone analogue, was originally found to inhibit human carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and to have potent growth delay activity in human breast and ovarian carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Here we report that BTO-956 given to Fischer 344 rats also inhibits corneal angiogenesis and the growth and neovascularization of the R3230Ac rat mammary carcinoma tumor implanted in skin-fold window chambers. Hydron pellets containing recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (50 ng) and Sucralfate (20 microg) were implanted into surgically created corneal micropockets (day 0). BTO-956 was administrated by oral gavage (500 mg/kg, twice a day for 6 days) on days 1-6 (controls received vehicle alone). On day 7, rats received retrograde infusions of India ink via the thoracic aorta to visualize the corneal vasculature. Digitized images of slide-mounted corneas from control and treated animals were taken with a microscope. For the tumor growth and angiogenesis study, small pieces of R3230Ac tumor from a donor rat were implanted into surgically prepared window chambers (day 0). BTO-956 was given during days 5-11, and images of the tumors and their vasculature were recorded on day 12. No body weight loss was observed in either study. BTO-956 significantly inhibited corneal angiogenesis (by 50-80%), as assessed by measurements of limbal circumference displaying neovascularization, vessel length, vascularized area, and vascular area density. In the window chamber assay, tumors from treated animals were >50% smaller than tumors in control animals. In addition, vascular length densities in peripheral tumor zones were 30% less in treated compared with control animals. Together, these findings demonstrate that BTO-956 can inhibit angiogenesis induced by a growth factor in the rat cornea and in the peripheral area of implanted tumors, where tumor angiogenesis is most active. (+info)
Regioselective oxidation of phenols to o-quinones with o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX).
[reaction: see text] An efficient regioselective method for oxidation of phenols to o-quinones is reported. When this procedure is combined with a subsequent reduction, it proves to be useful for the construction of a variety of catechols. (+info)
Sliding of the epithelium in experimental corneal wounds.
The corneal epithelial cell has a unique sliding capability. The epithelial cell spreads and migrates in an amebic fashion without mitotic activity when the continuity of the epithelium is broken. This movement is demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Prompt sliding for sealing the wound defect is apparently the first step of the wound healing of the superficial cornea. Cut edges of collagen fibers show no sign of activity towards healing the wound. The energy source of the sliding is provided mainly from stored glycogen in the epithelial cells. Sliding is inhibited by removal of glycogen from the cell or by adding glycolytic enzyme inhibitors. (+info)
The use of metrizamide as a density-gradient medium in studies of rat-liver polysomes.
The behaviour of rat liver cytoplasmic ribonucleoproteins in metrizamide has been studied to determine whether the iodinated compound would offer any advantage over other centrifugation media for studies of polysome structure and function. 1. Polysomes had a density of 1.295--1.300 g/cm3 in metrizamide gradients which was also the density of glycogen. However, the polysaccharide reached its equilibrium more rapidly than the polysomes. Thus a short centrifugation of a polysome suspension from non-starved rats over a 40% metrizamide cushion was sufficient to eliminate more than 85% of the glycogen with a polysome yield of about 75%. 2. Ribosomal subunits had neighbouring densities (1.23 and 1.20 g/cm3 for large and small EDTA-derived subunits; 1.23 and 1.21 g/cm3 for large and small KCl/puromycin-derived subunits, respectively). Polysomal messenger ribonucleoproteins were heterogeneously distributed (phi = 1.12 to 1.23 g/cm3) and overlapped with subunits in a similar manner as in sucrose gradients. 3. Analysis of a post-mitochondrial supernatant in metrizamide showed a clear separation of free polysomes, rough membranes and the soluble phase. (+info)
A novel method to differentiate between ping-pong and simultaneous exchange kinetics and its application to the anion exchanger of the HL60 cell.
We have developed a new test to differentiate between ping-pong and simultaneous mechanisms for tightly coupled anion exchange. This test requires the use of a dead-end reversible noncompetitive inhibitor. As an example, we have applied the test to the anion exchanger of the HL60 cell using the salicylic acid derivative 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid (DIS), which reversibly inhibits HL60 cell Cl/Cl exchange. The concentration of DIS that causes 50% inhibition (ID50) increased only slightly as either intra- or extracellular chloride was increased, indicating that DIS inhibits HL60 anion exchange in a noncompetitive manner. In agreement with this observation, plots of the slope of the Dixon plot as a function of 1/[Clo] or 1/[Cli] were fit with straight lines with nonzero intercepts, indicating that DIS does not compete with either of the substrates ([Clo] and [Cli]). The secondary Dixon slope test is based on the fact that, for a dead-end inhibitor such as DIS, the slope of the Dixon plot slope vs. 1/[Cli] (secondary Dixon slope or SDS) is independent of extracellular Cl when the exchange mechanism follows ping-pong kinetics. Similarly, the SDS calculated from a plot as a function of 1/[Clo] is also independent of intracellular Cl for a ping-pong exchanger. In contrast to this prediction, we found that for DIS inhibition of Cl/Cl exchange in HL60 cells the slope of the Dixon plot slope vs. 1/[Cli] decreased by a factor of 2.5-fold when [Clo] was increased from 1 to 11 mM (P < 0.0001). This change in the SDS rules out ping-pong kinetics, but is consistent with a simultaneous model of Cl/Cl exchange in which there are extra- and intracellular anion binding sites, both of which must be occupied by suitable anions in order to allow simultaneous exchange of the ions. (+info)
Selective binding to transthyretin and tetramer stabilization in serum from patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy by an iodinated diflunisal derivative.
In familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, TTR (transthyretin) variants are deposited as amyloid fibrils. It is thought that this process involves TTR tetramer dissociation, which leads to partially unfolded monomers that aggregate and polymerize into amyloid fibrils. This process can be counteracted by stabilization of the tetramer. Several small compounds, such as diclofenac, diflunisal and flufenamic acid, have been reported to bind to TTR in vitro, in the T4 (thyroxine) binding channel that runs through the TTR tetramer, and consequently are considered to stabilize TTR. However, if these agents bind plasma proteins other than TTR, decreased drug availability will occur, compromising their use as therapeutic agents for TTR amyloidosis. In the present work, we compared the action of these compounds and of new derivatives designed to increase both selectivity of binding to TTR and inhibitory potency in relation to TTR amyloid fibril formation. We found two diflunisal derivatives that, in contrast with diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal, displaced T4 from TTR in plasma preferentially over binding to albumin and thyroxine binding globulin. The same diflunisal derivatives also had a stabilizing effect on TTR tetramers in plasma, as studied by isoelectric focusing of whole plasma under semi-denaturing conditions. In addition, by transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that, in contrast with other proposed TTR stabilizers (namely diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal), one of the diflunisal derivatives tested efficiently inhibited TTR aggregation. Taken together, our ex vivo and in vitro studies present evidence for the selectivity and efficiency of novel diflunisal derivates as TTR stabilizers and as inhibitors of fibril formation. (+info)
Targeting against epidermal growth factor receptors. Cellular processing of astatinated EGF after binding to cultured carcinoma cells.
BACKGROUND: The alpha-emitting nuclide 211At is of great interest for radionuclide therapy when coupled to a tumor-targeting biomolecule, e.g. epidermal growth factor (EGF) the receptors of which are overexpressed in many malignancies. However, almost no information concerning the cellular processing of astatinated targeting agents is available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We indirectly astatinated EGF ([211At]-benzoate-EGF) and studied its cellular processing in A-431 carcinoma cells in comparison with data concerning [125I]-benzoate-EGF. RESULTS: The biological half-life of astatine (3.5 h) was longer than the half-life of the iodine label (1.5 h). The increase of the half-life was due to longer retention of the internalised astatine radioactivity. The maximum accumulation for the astatine label occurred later (4-6h) than that for the iodine label (2-4h), indicating a slower excretion of astatine that was confirmed in experiment with 211At/1251-benzoate-EGF. CONCLUSION: The long retention of astatine might be advantageous for radionuclide therapy. (+info)
Primary structure of a Thomsen-Friedenreich-antigen-specific lectin, jacalin [Artocarpus integrifolia (jack fruit) agglutinin]. Evidence for the presence of an internal repeat.
Jacalin [Artocarpus integrifolia (jack fruit) agglutinin] is made up of two types of chains, heavy and light, with M(r) values of 16,200 +/- 1200 and 2090 +/- 300 respectively (on the basis of gel-permeation chromatography under denaturing conditions). Its complete amino acid sequence was determined by manual degradation using a 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene 4'-isothiocyanate double-coupling method. Peptide fragments for sequence analysis were obtained by chemical cleavages of the heavy chain with CNBr, hydroxylamine hydrochloride and iodosobenzoic acid and enzymic cleavage with Staphylococcus aureus proteinase. The peptides were purified by a combination gel-permeation and reverse-phase chromatography. The light chains, being only 20 residues long, could be sequenced without fragmentation. Amino acid analyses and carboxypeptidase-Y-digestion C-terminal analyses of the subunits provided supportive evidence for their sequence. Computer-assisted alignment of the jacalin heavy-chain sequence failed to show sequence similarity to that of any lectin for which the complete sequence is known. Analyses of the sequence showed the presence of an internal repeat spanning residues 7-64 and 76-130. The internal repeat was found to be statistically significant. (+info)