Improved effect of 131I-MIBG treatment by predosing with non-radiolabeled MIBG in carcinoid patients, and studies in xenografted mice.
BACKGROUND: 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used with success for the palliation of metastatic carcinoid. To qualify more patients for this treatment, we evaluated the effect of predosing with non-radiolabeled MIBG on 131I-MIBG tumour targeting in carcinoid patients and in mice with BON human carcinoid xenografts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten carcinoid patients with a faint tumour imaging on a diagnostic 131I-MIBG scan (1 mCi = 37 MBq, 5 mg MIBG) received non-radiolabeled MIBG prior to a second scintigraphy. In case of improved tumour targeting patients were treated with 200 mCi (7.4 GBq) 131I-MIBG following a pharmacological predose of 20-40 mg/m2 MIBG. RESULTS: In six patients. highly increased 'tumour/non-tumour' ratios were seen due to reduced levels in normal tissues and increased tumour accumulation. The combined treatment applied in five patients, considerably improved symptoms in all (duration 6-12 months), accompanied by biochemical response in three. In BON carcinoid xenografted mice, MIBG was injected intraperitoneally followed by intravenous 125I-MIBG with similar findings: increased 'tumour/non-tumour' radioactivity ratios by 1.5-3-fold. CONCLUSION: Predosing with non-radiolabeled MIBG resulted in improved 131I-MIBG tumour targeting, prolonged palliation and encouragingly often biochemical responses in carcinoid. (+info
Transcellular transport of vitamin B(12) in LLC-PK1 renal proximal tubule cells.
The transcobalamin-vitamin B(12) complex is responsible for the transport of B(12) from plasma and into the tissues. The complex is filtered in the renal glomeruli and is a high-affinity ligand for the endocytic receptor megalin expressed in the proximal tubule. This study shows by the use of the proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cell line that transcobalamin-B(12) is internalized by megalin-mediated endocytosis. After endocytosis and accumulation in endosomes, transcobalamin is degraded and the B(12) molecule is released from the cells in complex with newly synthesized proteins. The release is polarized in such a way that vitamin in the apical medium is bound to proteins with the size of haptocorrin, whereas the B(12) released at the basolateral side is complexed to two different proteins with the sizes of transcobalamin and haptocorrin. Furthermore, transcobalamin mRNA was identified by reverse transcription-PCR in LLC-PK1 cells and human and pig kidney, whereas haptocorrin mRNA was identified only in LLC-PK1 cells. The results strongly suggest that megalin located in the proximal tubule cells is important for receptor-mediated tubular reabsorption followed by transcellular transport and release of vitamin B(12) complexed to newly synthesized carrier proteins. This mechanism is likely to play a significant role in the maintenance of B(12) homeostasis by returning filtered B(12) to the pool of circulating vitamin. (+info
The N-terminal of thrombospondin-1 is essential for coagulase-negative staphylococcal binding.
Bacterial binding was studied to determine whether thrombospondin-1 (TSP) acts as a ligand in attachment of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Twenty-five of 27 CNS strains bound soluble TSP. Staphylococcus epidermidis J9P bound 125I-labelled TSP in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard plot analysis of the binding of TSP by strain J9P revealed two Kd values of 6.4 x 10(-9) M and 2.9 x 10(-8) M. The binding structures of strain J9P were sensitive to protease and were resistant to heat treatment. Unlabelled TSP and recombinant von Willebrand factor inhibited binding of TSP by strain J9P, but other proteins or monosaccharides did not. Heparin inhibited binding of TSP to strain J9P and two other S. epidermidis strains, BD5703 and BD969. Fusion proteins of the type 1 repeats, type 2 repeats, type 3 repeats and C-terminal domain of TSP or the synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide did not inhibit binding of TSP to bacteria. TSP promoted adhesion of S. epidermidis strains when it was immobilised on polymer surfaces. These results indicate that the specific interaction between CNS and TSP may contribute to bacterial adhesion on biomaterial surfaces. The N-terminal heparin-binding domain of TSP appears to be the major region for recognition by CNS. (+info
Functional fragments of ingested lactoferrin are resistant to proteolytic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of adult rats.
Pharmaceutical and food-related applications of lactoferrin, an 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein found predominantly in milk, have attracted interest lately, but the process of digestion of lactoferrin has been poorly characterized. The digestive fate of bovine lactoferrin in adult rats after oral administration of a single dose and after dietary supplementation was studied by (125)I-labeling and by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) affinity mass spectrometry. The latter method was designed to detect multiple forms of degraded lactoferrin as simple molecular ion peaks corresponding to one of the core regions of lactoferrin, namely, the lactoferricin region (Phe17-Ala42). Radioactive fragments with molecular masses of 42, 36, 33 and 29 kDa were observed at 20, 60 and 180 min postingestion in the contents of the lower small intestine. Rats were given free access to milk enriched with lactoferrin at 482 micromol/L (40 mg/mL). The concentrations of lactoferrin fragments in the contents of the stomach, small intestine and lower small intestine as determined by SELDI affinity mass spectrometry were approximately 200, 20 and 1 micromol/L, respectively. These data indicate that functional fragments of LF such as fragments containing glycosaminoglycan-binding site(s), as well as large fragments with a mass >20 kDa, indeed survive proteolytic degradation in the small intestine of adult rats. (+info
Synthetic peptide VKGFY and its cyclic analog stimulate macrophage bactericidal activity through non-opioid beta-endorphin receptors.
We synthesized linear and cyclic pentapeptides corresponding to the sequence 369-373 of human immunoglobulin G heavy chain--VKGFY (referred to as pentarphin and cyclopentarphin, respectively). The effect of pentarphin and cyclopentarphin on phagocytosis of Salmonella typhimurium virulent 415 strainbacteria by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro was studied. Control experiments showed that macrophages actively captured these bacteria, but did not digest them: the captured microbes were viable and continued to proliferate inside the phagocytes; within 12 h all macrophage monolayer was destroyed (incomplete phagocytosis). If 1 nM pentarphin or cyclopentarphin was added to the cultivation medium, macrophage bactericidal activity was significantly increased and they digested all captured microorganisms within 6 h (complete phagocytosis). To study the receptor binding properties of pentarphin and cyclopentarphin we prepared (125)I-labeled pentarphin (179 Ci/mmol specific activity). The binding of (125)I-labeled pentarphin to mouse peritoneal macrophages was high-affinity (K(d) = 3.6 +/- 0.3 nM) and saturable. Studies on binding specificity revealed that this binding was insensitive to naloxone and [Met(5)]enkephalin, but completely inhibited by unlabeled cyclopentarphin (K(i) = 2.6 +/- 0.3 nM), immunorphin (K(i) = 3.2 +/- 0.3 nM), and beta-endorphin (K(i) = 2.8 +/- 0.2 nM). Thus, the effects of pentarphin and cyclopentarphin on macrophages are mediated by naloxone-insensitive receptors common for pentarphin, cyclopentarphin, immunorphin, and beta-endorphin. (+info
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor distribution in Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease, and vascular dementia: in vitro binding study using 5-[(125)i]-a-85380.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders. 5-Iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine (5-I-A-85380) is a novel nAChR marker, binding predominantly to the alpha4beta2 subtype. This in vitro autoradiography study describes the distribution of 5-[(125)I]-A-85380 binding in post-mortem brain tissue from normal elderly individuals and from cases with age-associated dementias of both neurodegenerative and vascular types. The binding distribution of 5-[(125)I]-A-85380 in normal brain tissue was found to be consistent with the reported distribution of other high-affinity nicotinic ligands. In addition to high thalamic and moderate striatal and temporal cortex density, moderate 5-[(125)I]-A-85380 binding was also seen in white matter tracts in cingulate, occipital, and temporal areas, indicating the presence of nAChRs along nerve fiber tracts, which has not been reported in other high-affinity nicotinic agonist distribution studies. In Parkinson's disease (PD), loss of striatal 5-[(125)I]-A-85380 binding closely parallels the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic markers previously observed. In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) reduced striatal 5-[(125)I]-A-85380 binding density, comparable to that in PD, may be a marker of early degeneration in nigrostriatal inputs, while in Alzheimer's disease (AD) reduced striatal 5-[(125)I]-A-85380 binding could be related to reduced cortical inputs. The reductions of nAChRs seen in AD, DLB, and PD were not apparent in vascular dementia (VaD). In conclusion, 5-I-A-85380 is clearly a useful ligand for both in vitro and in vivo single photon emission tomography human studies investigating disease symptoms and progression, response to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting drugs and in differentiating primary degenerative dementia from VaD. (+info
A method for I 131 conversion ration utilizing the plasma inorganic I 131 fraction.
A method for calculating I(131) conversion ratios by utilizing the inorganic I(131) counts in the plasma at 24 hours is presented. Its chief advantage over previously used methods is that in cases of low conversion ratio it eliminates the large error introduced by fluctuations in the background of the counting equipment. The principle of the method depends upon the ability of silver to precipitate iodine (I(131)) in the presence of a slight excess of carrier iodine. Data are presented which show that low conversion ratios are frequently found in euthyroid patients, as has been the finding of other investigators. (+info
PANCREATIC REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF PANCREATIC STEATORRHOEA.
The effect of a whole pancreas preparation (Viokase) has been investigated in 11 patients with pancreatic steatorrhoea and in five patients with steatorrhoea due to other causes. The appearance of the stool, faecal fat, and stool and blood radioactivity after a given dose of I(131) triolein (Raolein) were employed in assessing the response to Viokase therapy. Pancreatic steatorrhoea was considerably improved in the majority of patients, and showed some improvement in the remainder. Viokase appeared to be of limited value in the treatment of post-gastrectomy steatorrhoea, and failed to influence fat absorption in steatorrhoea due to disorder of the small intestine. (+info