Hydroiodic acid attachment kinetics as a chemical probe of gaseous protein ion structure: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.
The kinetics of attachment of hydroiodic acid (HI) to the (M + 6H)6+ ions of native and reduced forms of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) in the quadrupole ion trap environment are reported. Distinctly nonlinear (pseudo first-order) reaction kinetics are observed for reaction of the native ions, indicating two or more noninterconverting structures in the parent ion population. The reduced form, on the other hand, shows very nearly linear reaction kinetics. Both forms of the parent ion attach a maximum of five molecules of hydroiodic acid. This number is expected based on the amino acid composition of the protein. There is a total of 11 strongly basic sites in the protein (i.e., six arginines, four lysines, and one N-terminus). An ion with protons occupying six of the basic sites has five available for hydroiodic acid attachment. The kinetics of successive attachment of HI to the native and reduced forms of BPTI also differ, particularly for the addition of the fourth and fifth HI molecules. A very simple kinetic model describes the behavior of the reduced form reasonably well, suggesting that all of the neutral basic sites in the reduced BPTI ions have roughly equal reactivity. However, the behavior of the native ion is not well-described by this simple model. The results are discussed within the context of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the ions that result from the presence or absence of the three disulfide linkages found in native BPTI. The HI reaction kinetics appears to have potential as a chemical probe of protein ion three-dimensional structure in the gas phase. Hydroiodic acid attachment chemistry is significantly different from other chemistries used to probe three-dimensional structure and hence, promises to yield complementary information. (+info)
Short-term effectiveness of mandatory iodization of table salt, at an elevated iodine concentration, on the iodine and goiter status of schoolchildren with endemic goiter.
BACKGROUND: Goiter rates and iodine deficiency usually show marked improvement in efficacy studies of mandatory iodization of salt, but little is known about the short-term effectiveness of mandatory iodization. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate, after 1 y, the effectiveness of mandatory iodization of salt at an iodine concentration higher than that occurring under optional iodization on the goiter rates and iodine status of schoolchildren living in an endemically goitrous area. DESIGN: Goiters, measured by palpation, and urinary iodine concentrations of children in grades 4-7 in 4 schools in a known goitrous area in South Africa were assessed before and 1 y after the introduction of mandatory iodization at a higher iodine concentration than occurred with optional iodization. Estimates of the iodine concentration of iodized salt and the proportion of households using iodized salt were also made. RESULTS: Iodine concentration in table salt and household use of iodized salt improved within 1 y. Goiter rates, which varied at baseline from 14. 3% to 30.2% in the 4 schools, remained unchanged, with an overall mean (+/-SE) prevalence of 25.6 +/- 2.5% at baseline and of 27.5 +/- 2.7% 1 y later. The distribution of urinary iodine concentrations in the 4 schools improved substantially from the baseline deficient range. The overall median urinary iodine concentration increased from 0.17 to 1.47 micromol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Mandatory iodization of salt virtually eradicated iodine deficiency within 1 y in South African schoolchildren, but the goiter rate in these children did not decline. Measurement of goiters by palpation may not be appropriate in short-term evaluations of mandatory iodization programs. (+info)
Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses.
The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined. (+info)
Indirect spectrophotometric determination of small amounts of selenium(IV) and arsenic(V) by simple extraction using flotation columns.
A simple, rapid and selective procedure for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of Se(IV) and As(V) has been developed. It is based on the reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0) and As(V) to As(III) with hydroiodic acid (KI + HCl). The liberated iodine, equivalent to each analyte, is quantitatively extracted with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant. The iodine-HOL system exhibits its maximum absorbance at 435 nm. The different analytical parameters affecting the extraction and determination processes have been examined. The calibration graphs were found to be linear over the ranges 5-120 and 0.25-20 ppm of Se(IV) and As(V), with lower detection limits of 2.5 and 0.15 ppm and molar absorptivities of 1 x 10(4) and 0.5 x 10(4) dm3 mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. Sandell's sensitivity was calculated to be 0.0078 and 0.0149 microg/cm2 in the same order. The relative standard deviation for five replicate analyses of 40 ppm Se(IV) and 4 ppm As(V) were 1.0 and 0.9%, respectively. The proposed procedure in the presence of EDTA as a masking agent for foreign ions has been successfully applied to the determination of Se(IV) in a reference sample and As(V) in copper metal, in addition to their determination in spiked and polluted water samples. (+info)
A newly discovered oxidant defence system and its involvement in the development of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria): reactive oxygen species and elemental iodine control medusa formation.
In Aurelia aurita, applied iodine induces medusa formation (strobilation). This process also occurs when the temperature is lowered. This was found to increase oxidative stress resulting in an increased production of iodine from iodide. One polyp produces several medusae (initially termed ephyrae) starting at the polyp's oral end. The spreading of strobilation down the body column is controlled by a feedback loop: ephyra anlagen decrease the tyrosine content in adjacent polyp tissue by producing melanin from tyrosine. Endogenous tyrosine is able to remove iodine by forming iodiferous tyrosine compounds. The reduced level of tyrosine causes the ephyra-polyp-border to move towards the basal end of the former polyp. We argue that an oxidant defence system may exist which makes use of iodide and tyrosine. Like other marine invertebrates, polyps of Aurelia contain iodide ions. Inevitably produced peroxides oxidise iodide into iodine. The danger to be harmed by iodine is strongly decreased by endogenous tyrosine which reacts with iodine to form iodiferous tyrosine compounds including thyroxin. Both substances together, iodide and tyrosine, form an efficient oxidant defence system which shields the tissue against damage by reactive oxygen species. In the course of evolution (from a species at the basis of the animal kingdom like Aurelia to a highly evolved species like man) the waste product thyroxin (indicating a high metabolic rate) has developed into a hormone which controls the metabolic rate. (+info)
Effect of iodinated contrast agents on residual renal function in PD patients.
BACKGROUND: Residual renal function (RRF) is an important predictor of outcome in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Although increasing emphasis has been placed on preserving RRF, the nephrotoxicity associated with contrast medium administration in PD patients remains a controversial issue. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the evolution of RRF 2 weeks after iodinated contrast medium administration (ICMA) in a group of stable PD patients, and compared it with that in a non-treated control group of stable PD subjects. METHODS: The study was conducted from January 2003 to October 2004. RRF was quantified by the average of 24 h urinary urea and creatinine clearance and peritoneal creatinine clearance (PcrCl) were analyzed, the levels of which were analysed prior to and 2 weeks following ICMA in 36 PD patients and also assessed at the same time points in a group of 36 PD non-ICMA control subjects, matched according to RRF characteristics. Two weeks following ICMA, the values for RRF, daily urine volume and PcrCl were assessed against those at baseline, and the evolution of RRF was compared between the two groups. In the ICMA group, this study was performed with adequate pre-hydration and a minimum dose of contrast medium. RESULTS: Compared with baseline values, RRF, daily urine volume and PcrCl were not found to be significantly different 2 weeks after ICMA (7.0+/-4.3 vs 7.2+/-4.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.12; 1324+/-696 vs 1360+/-755 ml/day, P = 0.5; and 41.1+/-9 vs 40.6+/-9 l/week/1.73 m(2), P = 0.6, respectively). Following ICMA, variations in RRF and daily urine volume were found to be comparable with those of the control group (0.1+/-0.5 vs 0.1+/-0.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.9; 36+/-440 vs 40+/-493 ml/day, P = 0.8, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this study, 2 weeks following ICMA, no accelerated decline in RRF was determined in stable PD patients with adequate pre-hydration, i.e. subjects treated under optimal circumstances compared with the control group. (+info)
Pharmacological prevention of serious anaphylactic reactions due to iodinated contrast media: systematic review.
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of pharmacological prevention of serious reactions to iodinated contrast media. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Systematic search (multiple databases, bibliographies, all languages, to October 2005) for randomised comparisons of pretreatment with placebo or no treatment (control) in patients receiving iodinated contrast media. Review methods Trial quality was assessed by all investigators. Information on trial design, population, interventions, and outcomes was abstracted by one investigator and cross checked by the others. Data were combined by using Peto odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Nine trials (1975-96, 10 011 adults) tested H1 antihistamines, corticosteroids, and an H1-H2 combination. No trial included exclusively patients with a history of allergic reactions. Many outcomes were not allergy related, and only a few were potentially life threatening. No reports on death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, irreversible neurological deficit, or prolonged hospital stays were found. In two trials, 3/778 (0.4%) patients who received oral methylprednisolone 2x32 mg or intravenous prednisolone 250 mg had laryngeal oedema compared with 11/769 (1.4%) controls (odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.88). In two trials, 7/3093 (0.2%) patients who received oral methylprednisolone 2x32 mg had a composite outcome (including shock, bronchospasm, and laryngospasm) compared with 20/2178 (0.9%) controls (odds ratio 0.28, 0.13 to 0.60). In one trial, 1/196 (0.5%) patients who received intravenous clemastine 0.03 mg/kg and cimetidine 2-5 mg/kg had angio-oedema compared with 8/194 (4.1%) controls (odds ratio 0.20, 0.05 to 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Life threatening anaphylactic reactions due to iodinated contrast media are rare. In unselected patients, the usefulness of premedication is doubtful, as a large number of patients need to receive premedication to prevent one potentially serious reaction. Data supporting the use of premedication in patients with a history of allergic reactions are lacking. Physicians who are dealing with these patients should not rely on the efficacy of premedication. (+info)
Intravenous iodinated contrast agents: risks and problematic situations.
Many of today's diagnostic imaging studies use intravenous contrast media to adequately evaluate disease processes. Although these agents are generally safe, their use poses some risks and, in some situations, is problematic. The risks include contrast-induced nephropathy. (+info)