Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus.
The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin. (+info)
Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates.
1. ClC proteins are a class of voltage-dependent Cl- channels with several members mutated in human diseases. The prototype ClC-0 Torpedo channel is a dimeric protein; each subunit forms a pore that can gate independently from the other one. A common slower gating mechanism acts on both pores simultaneously; slow gating activates ClC-0 at hyperpolarized voltages. The ClC-2 Cl- channel is also activated by hyperpolarization, as are some ClC-1 mutants (e.g. D136G) and wild-type (WT) ClC-1 at certain pH values. 2. We studied the dependence on internal Cl- ([Cl-]i) of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of several ClC channels (WT ClC-0, ClC-0 mutant P522G, ClC-1 mutant D136G and an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2), by patch clamping channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 3. With all these channels, reducing [Cl-]i shifted activation to more negative voltages and reduced the maximal activation at most negative voltages. 4. We also investigated the external halide dependence of WT ClC-2 using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Reducing external Cl- ([Cl-]o) activated ClC-2 currents. Replacing [Cl-]o by the less permeant Br- reduced channel activity and accelerated deactivation. 5. Gating of the ClC-2 mutant K566Q in normal [Cl-]o resembled that of WT ClC-2 in low [Cl-]o, i.e. channels had a considerable open probability (Po) at resting membrane potential. Substituting external Cl- by Br- or I- led to a decrease in Po. 6. The [Cl-]i dependence of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of various ClC channels suggests a similar gating mechanism, and raises the possibility that the gating charge for the hyperpolarization-activated gate is provided by Cl-. 7. The external halide dependence of hyperpolarization-activated gating of ClC-2 suggests that it is mediated or modulated by anions as in other ClC channels. In contrast to the depolarization-activated fast gates of ClC-0 and ClC-1, the absence of Cl- favours channel opening. Lysine 556 may be important for the relevant binding site. (+info)
Anion efflux from cytotrophoblast cells derived from normal term human placenta is stimulated by hyposmotic challenge and extracellular A23187 but not by membrane-soluble cAMP.
The regulation of placental anion transport influences fetal accretion and placental homeostasis. We investigated whether efflux of 125I- or 36Cl- from multinucleated cytotrophoblast cells derived from human term placenta is regulated by one of three stimuli: (a) the calcium ionophore A23187, (b) a 'cocktail' of agents designed to raise intracellular levels of cAMP, (c) a hyposmotic solution. After loading with the appropriate isotope for 2 h and thorough washing, cells were exposed to sequential aliquots of buffer applied and removed each minute. Following an equilibration period of 5 min one of the stimuli was applied at room temperature At the end of the experiment the cells were lysed to give a lysate count which was used to express the count obtained from each aliquot as percentage efflux of that possible for that minute. The cAMP 'cocktail' and A23187 were applied for 5 min; the hyposmotic solution was applied for 10 min. The results for 125I- at 7 min showed that the mean efflux in the presence of hyposmotic shock was greater than control (5.7 +/- 1.0% min-1 versus 2.2 +/- 0.1% min-1, respectively; mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4 placentas). Similarly mean efflux at 6 min in the presence of A23187 was also significantly greater than control (6.5 +/- 1.9% min-1 versus 2.6 +/- 1.0% min-1, respectively, n = 3 placentas). The mean efflux in the presence of the cAMP cocktail was not different from control at any time point. The results were qualitatively the same if 36Cl- was used in the place of 125I- and when the experiment was performed with 36Cl- in a HCO3- buffer gassed with CO2. Mean 125I- efflux at 6 min in response to hyposmotic challenge was 33% less (P < 0.01) in the presence of 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 37% less (P < 0.005) in the presence of 10 microM tamoxifen but no different if the hyposmotic solution was nominally calcium free. We conclude that there are differential effects of second messengers on anion efflux from the differentiated cytotrophoblast cells. (+info)
Volume-regulated anion and organic osmolyte channels in mouse zygotes.
Whole-cell currents in mouse zygotes were measured using the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell mode. Upon exposure to hypotonic medium, patch-clamped zygotes increased in volume and developed a large swelling-activated current. The swelling-activated current was blocked by Cl- channel blockers, and the magnitude of the current and reversal potential were dependent on the Cl- gradient. Thus, the swelling-activated current had the properties of a current mediated by anion channels. However, in addition to being permeable to Cl- and I- (with I- having the greater permeability), there was also a significant swelling-activated conductance to aspartate and taurine, indicating that the swelling-activated channels in zygotes conduct not only inorganic anions but organic osmolytes as well. This swelling-activated anion and organic osmolyte pathway likely underlies the ability of zygotes to recover from an increase in volume, and it may function to regulate intracellular amino acid concentrations. (+info)
Ligand-dependent conformational equilibria of serum albumin revealed by tryptophan fluorescence quenching.
Ligand-dependent structural changes in serum albumin are suggested to underlie its role in physiological solute transport and receptor-mediated cellular selection. Evidence of ligand-induced (oleic acid) structural changes in serum albumin are shown in both time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence quenching and anisotropy measurements of tryptophan 214 (Trp214). These studies were augmented with column chromatography separations. It was found that both the steady-state and time-resolved Stern-Volmer collisional quenching studies of Trp214 with acrylamide pointed to the existence of an oleate-dependent structural transformation. The bimolecular quenching rate constant of defatted human serum albumin, 1.96 x 10(9) M-1 s-1, decreased to 0.94 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 after incubation with oleic acid (9:1). Furthermore, Stern-Volmer quenching studies following fractionation of the structural forms by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were in accordance with this interpretation. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements of the Trp214 residue yielded information of motion within the protein together with the whole protein molecule. Characteristic changes in these motions were observed after the binding of oleate to albumin. The addition of oleate was accompanied by an increase in the rotational diffusion time of the albumin molecule from approximately 22 to 33.6 ns. Within the body of the protein, however, the rotational diffusion time for Trp214 exhibited a slight decrease from 191 to 182 ps and was accompanied by a decrease in the extent of the angular motion of Trp214, indicating a transition after oleate binding to a more spatially restricted but less viscous environment. (+info)
Kinetics of thyroglobulin iodination and of hormone synthesis catalysed by thyroid peroxidase. Role of iodide in the coupling reaction.
The kinetics of tyrosine iodination and of thyroxine synthesis in thyroglobulin, different reactions catalyzed by the same enzyme (thyroid peroxidase), have been compared. Thyroxine synthesis always began after a lag period of 3-5 min. This lag was constant whatever the rate of iodination; this rate of iodination was increased either by increasing the concentration of iodide or enzyme or by decreasing the concentration of thyroglobulin. Increasing the rate of iodination resulted in increasing the number of iodine atoms incorporated during the lag period. Thus the lag observed for thyroxine synthesis was constant and did not depend on the fact that free iodide or non-iodinated tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin were exhausted before thyroxine synthesis occurred. Finally, it appeared that, whatever the explanation of the lag, the enzyme catlyzes thyroid hormone synthesis at a slower rate than iodination. The existence of a lag also allowed us to prepare thyroglobulin samples with different iodine contents but without thyroid hormones. Thus iodination and thyroxine synthesis could be studied independently and the following results were obtained. 1. Iodotyrosine residues which can couple to form thytoxine are made considerably before coupling occurs. 2. H2O2 is required for coupling of these hormonogenic residues; thus the coupling reaction requires enzymic oxidation of the iodotyrosine residues. 3. In addition a strict requirement for iodide was needed for coupling; the requirement was dependent on the concentration of iodide. Thus iodide, a substrate of the iodination reaction, may also have other effects on the activity of thyroid peroxidase. (+info)
Inhibition of thyroid iodine uptake and organification in rats treated with kojic acid.
In order to elucidate the mechanisms of reduction of serum thyroid hormones caused by continuous administration of kojic acid (KA) and its thyroid tumor-promotion effects, male F344 rats were given pulverized basal diet containing 0.008%, 0.03%, 0.125%, 0.5%, or 2% KA for 4 weeks. As an untreated control group, additional rats were given basal diet alone for the same period. The thyroid 125I uptake was significantly decreased in the groups receiving 0.03% or more. In addition, significant reduction of organic formation of iodine and serum T3 and T4 levels were observed in the 2% KA group along with pronounced elevation of serum (TSH). Both absolute and relative thyroid weights were significantly increased in the groups receiving 0.5% of KA or more. Histopathologically, decreased colloid in the thyroid follicles and follicular cell hypertrophy in the thyroid were apparent at high incidences in the groups given 0.03% or more. In addition, thyroid capsular fibrosis was evident in all rats of the 2% KA group. In quantitative morphometrical analysis, the ratio of the area of follicular epithelial cells to the area of colloids was significantly increased in the groups given 0.03% KA or more. The results suggest that KA alteration of thyroid-related hormone levels in the 2% KA group are due to inhibition of iodide uptake and iodine organification in the thyroid, with tumor-promoting effects on development of thyroid proliferative lesions, probably secondary to prolonged serum TSH stimulation resulting from negative feedback through the pituitary-thyroid axis. (+info)
Iodide symporter gene expression in normal and transformed rat thyroid cells.
OBJECTIVE: Decrease or loss of the Na+/I- symporter (NIS) activity profoundly affects the suitability of the use of radioiodine to detect or treat metastatic thyroid tissues. The aim of our study was to verify whether specific oncogene abnormalities were responsible for the alteration in NIS activity in thyroid cells. DESIGN AND METHODS: Expression of the NIS gene was investigated by Northern blot analysis in normal and in some oncogene-transformed cell lines with different degrees of malignancy which had lost the iodide uptake ability. RESULTS: NIS gene expression was up-regulated by TSH in a dose-dependent and time-dependent way in normal PC Cl 3 cells. The same effect was observed by activating the cAMP-dependent pathway by forskolin. Conversely, insulin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed a partial inhibitory effect on NIS gene expression. The oncogene-transformed cell lines PC v-erbA, PC HaMSV, PC v-raf, and PC E1A cells showed reduced NIS mRNA levels compared with the normal PC Cl 3 cells. Conversely, an almost complete absence of NIS gene expression was found in PC RET/PTC, PC KiMSV, PC p53(143ala), and PC PyMLV cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that oncogene activation could play a role in affecting the iodide uptake ability in thyroid tumoral cells; different mechanisms are involved in the oncogene-dependent loss of NIS activity in transformed thyroid cells. (+info)