Pharyngeal mucosal pressures, airway sealing pressures, and fiberoptic position with the intubating versus the standard laryngeal mask airway.
BACKGROUND: The tube of the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) is more rigid than the standard laryngeal mask airway (LMA), and the authors have tested the hypothesis that pharyngeal mucosal pressures, airway sealing pressures, and fiberoptic position are different when the two devices are compared. METHODS: Twenty anesthetized, paralyzed adults were randomly allocated to receive either the LMA or ILM for airway management. Microchip sensors were attached to the size 5 LMA or ILM at locations corresponding to the pyriform fossa, hypopharynx, base of tongue, posterior pharynx, and distal and proximal oropharynx. Mucosal pressures, airway sealing pressures, and fiberoptic positioning were recorded during inflation of the cuff from 0 to 40 ml in 10-ml increments. RESULTS: Airway sealing pressures were higher for the ILM (30 vs. 23 cm H2O), but epiglottic downfolding was more common (56% vs. 26%). Pharyngeal mucosal pressures were much higher for the ILM at five of six locations. Mean mucosal pressures in the distal oropharynx for the ILM were always greater than 157 cm H2O, regardless of cuff volume. There was no correlation between mucosal pressures and airway sealing pressures at any location for the LMA, but there was a correlation at three of six locations for the ILM. CONCLUSIONS: The ILM provides a more effective seal than the LMA, but pharyngeal mucosal pressures are higher and always exceed capillary perfusion pressure. The ILM is unsuitable for use as a routine airway and should be removed after its use as an airway intubator. (+info)
Palliation of dysphagia from inoperable oesophageal carcinoma using Atkinson tubes or self-expanding metal stents.
Until recently, intubation for the palliation of malignant dysphagia has relied upon the insertion of a variety of plastic tubes. Self-expanding metal stents are reported to have a lower complication rate. We have compared the results of Atkinson tube insertion with self-expanding metal stents in patients with inoperable oesophageal carcinoma. From 1990 to 1994 Atkinson tubes were inserted for the palliation of dysphagia from oesophageal cancer, from 1994 onwards self-expanding metal stents were used. Complications, mortality and hospital stay were compared in both groups of patients. In all, 87 patients with inoperable oesophageal carcinoma were treated, 46 with an Atkinson tube and 41 with metal stents. Complications occurred at similar rates in both groups (56% Atkinson tubes, 44% metal stents). There was a significantly higher perforation rate associated with Atkinson tube insertion (8 patients, 17%) compared with metal stents (1 patient, 2.4%, P = 0.02, chi 2). The length of stay was also significantly higher in the Atkinson tube group (median 10 days) compared with the metal stent group (3 days, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). Mortality rates were similar in both groups. The use of metal stents for the palliation of dysphagia in inoperable oesophageal carcinoma results in a lower perforation rate and a reduced length of stay and they represent a significant advantage over Atkinson tubes. (+info)
Modified nasopharyngeal tube for upper airway obstruction.
A modified nasopharyngeal tube is described that does not add airway dead space and resistance, is well tolerated, highly successful, and allows simultaneous use of oxygen prongs. This potentially reduces the need for surgical intervention to relieve high upper airway obstruction from Pierre-Robin syndrome and other causes. (+info)
Sensorineural hearing loss and prematurity.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate clinical antecedents of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in very preterm infants. DESIGN: Case-control study. SUBJECTS: Fifteen children < 33 weeks' gestation with significant SNHL born between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1994, detected within 9 months of birth, and 30 matched control children. METHODOLOGY: Perinatal variables in the two groups were compared using non-parametric tests and conditional logistic regression (EGRET). RESULTS: Median birth weight for the index group was 960 g (range 600-2914 g) compared with 1026 g (range 410-2814 g) for controls. Children with SNHL had longer periods of intubation, ventilation, oxygen treatment, and acidosis, and more frequent treatment with dopamine or frusemide. Neither peak nor trough aminoglycoside levels, nor duration of jaundice or level of bilirubin varied between groups. However, SNHL was more likely if peak bilirubin levels coexisted with netilmicin use (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 14.2 (1.8 to 113.6)) or if acidosis occurred when bilirubin levels were over 200 micromol/l (OR 8.0 (0.9 to 71.6). Frusemide use in the face of high serum creatinine levels (OR 8.9 (1.1 to 74.5)) or netilmicin treatment (OR 5.0 (0.99 to 24.8)) was also associated with SNHL. At 12 months of age, seven of 15 children with SNHL had evidence of cerebral palsy compared with two of 30 controls (OR 12.3 (2.1 to 71)). CONCLUSIONS: Preterm children with SNHL required more intensive care in the perinatal period and developed more neurological complications than controls. Among very preterm babies, the coexistence of risk factors for hearing loss may be more important than the individual factors themselves. (+info)
Adhesion formation in intubated rabbits increases with high insufflation pressure during endoscopic surgery.
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the increase in adhesion formation by CO(2) pneumoperitoneum is caused by mesothelial hypoxaemia. Therefore the effect of the intra-abdominal pressure together with the flow rate upon adhesion formation was evaluated in rabbits following laser and bipolar lesions during endoscopic surgery using humidified CO(2) at 35 +/- 1 degrees C. The intra-abdominal pressure and flow rate were 5 mmHg and 1 l/min in group 1 (n = 5), 5 mmHg and 10 l/min in group 2 (n = 4), 20 mmHg and 1 l/min in group 3 (n = 5) and 20 mmHg and 10 l/min in group 4 (n = 4) respectively. A rapid and reliable intubation method for rabbits was developed to permit high insufflation pressure. By two-way analysis of variance, total adhesion scores following a laser lesion increased with flow rate (P = 0.0003) and insufflation pressure (P = 0.002). Total adhesion scores of bipolar lesions increased with pressure (P = 0.02) but not with flow rate (P = 0.1). The total adhesion scores of laser and bipolar lesions together increased with flow rate (P = 0.005) and with insufflation pressure (P = 0.004). There was no statistical interaction between flow rate and insufflation pressure. In conclusion, the insufflation pressure in endoscopic surgery with CO(2) pneumoperitoneum is a co-factor in adhesion formation, together with desiccation. (+info)
Combination therapy for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infection associated with biofilm formation.
There had been no reports of investigations into biofilms in chronic respiratory infection in vivo. Recently, we established a new murine model of chronic respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we examined the bacteriological effect of combined clarithromycin and levofloxacin against chronic respiratory infection with P. aeruginosa. Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of the catheter intubated in mouse bronchus for 7 days demonstrated in vivo formation of a biofilm containing blood cells, complex fibrous structures and bacteria. Treatment with either clarithromycin alone or levofloxacin alone had no statistical effect on the number of viable bacteria in lung. The combined use of both drugs resulted in a significant decrease in the number of viable bacteria. The present experiment demonstrates that the newly established murine model was useful to investigate the treatment of biofilm-associated chronic respiratory infection with P. aeruginosa, and combination therapy with clarithromycin and levofloxacin was effective in biofilm-associated chronic respiratory infection. (+info)
Anesthesia in the Yom Kippur war.
The role of the anesthetist in the treatment of battle casualties is discussed in the light of personal experience in a field hospital and in the rear during the Yom Kippur War of October 1973. Resuscitation and intensive care both before and after evacuation play an important part in reducing mortality, and the importance of providing adequate facilities for these functions in the battle area as well as at the base is emphasized. (+info)
Endoscopic management of biliary leaks after T-tube removal in liver transplant recipients: nasobiliary drainage versus biliary stenting.
This study presents the long-term sequelae of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-managed biliary leakage in patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and compares the relative efficacy, safety, and charges of nasobiliary drainage (NBD) versus biliary stenting (BS). We identified all orthotopic liver transplant recipients from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 1997, who had undergone ERCP for biliary leakage. Clinical outcome and charges were calculated on an intention-to-treat basis according to initial endoscopic therapy. Of the 1,166 adult OLTs performed during the study period, 442 patients underwent elective T-tube removal. ERCP was attempted in 69 patients (16%) who developed biliary leakage after T-tube removal. Three patients (5%) in whom initial ERCP was unsuccessful underwent surgery. NBD and BS were used as primary therapy in 45 (68%) and 21 patients (32%), respectively. Three patients initially treated with NBD required reendoscopy or surgery compared with 6 patients initially treated with BS (P <.05). Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward greater expense in the BS group compared with the NBD group. ERCP is a safe and effective method of managing biliary leakage after T-tube removal in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. However, our results suggest NBD is the preferred method because recurrent leaks were more common in patients treated initially with BS. With prompt use of ERCP, surgery is rarely needed for this complication of OLT. (+info)