Intraoperative renal duplex sonography: a valuable method for evaluating renal artery reconstructions.
OBJECTIVES: to determine the ability of duplex sonography to intraoperatively detect technical problems with renal artery reconstructions. DESIGN: retrospective evaluation of a standard protocol. PATIENTS AND METHODS: the outcome of intraoperative duplex was compared with postoperative angiography, surface duplex, MRA, echo or direct inspection in case of re-exploration in 77 renal artery reconstructions in 62 patients. These included six extracorporeal reconstructions, eight and 17 reconstructions with an artery and autogenous vein respectively, 10 renal artery re-implantations in the aorta (prosthesis), 32 endarterectomies and four reconstructions of kidney transplant vessels. RESULTS: intraoperative duplex was normal in 67/73 reconstructions with sufficient data. In six cases technical problems were revealed by intraoperative duplex and the reconstruction was re-explored. After re-exploration intraoperative duplex was normal in all cases. Confirmatory studies demonstrated normal results in 61/64 reconstructions with normal intraoperative duplex and abnormal results in 6/6 reconstructions with technical problems revealed by intraoperative duplex. Three reconstructions with normal intraoperative duplex occluded as demonstrated by angiography less than 2 weeks after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: renal duplex sonography is a valuable method available for intraoperative detection of technical problems. Haemodynamic duplex data were less important than B-mode imaging in discriminating between normal and abnormal reconstruction. (+info)
Functional MRI and intraoperative brain mapping to evaluate brain plasticity in patients with brain tumours and hemiparesis.
OBJECTIVE: To support the hypothesis about the potential compensatory role of ipsilateral corticofugal pathways when the contralateral pathways are impaired by brain tumours. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was carried out on the results of functional MRI (fMRI) of a selected group of five paretic patients with Rolandic brain tumours who exhibited an abnormally high ipsilateral/contralateral ratio of activation-that is, movements of the paretic hand activated predominately the ipsilateral cortex. Brain activation was achieved with a flexion extension of the fingers. Statistical parametric activation was obtained using a t test and a threshold of p<0.001. These patients, candidates for tumour resection, also underwent cortical intraoperative stimulation that was correlated to the fMRI spatial data using three dimensional reconstructions of the brain. Three patients also had postoperative control fMRI. RESULTS: The absence of fMRI activation of the primary sensorimotor cortex normally innervating the paretic hand for the threshold chosen, was correlated with completely negative cortical responses of the cortical hand area during the operation. The preoperative fMRI activation of these patients predominantly found in the ipsilateral frontal and primary sensorimotor cortices could be related to the residual ipsilateral hand function. Postoperatively, the fMRI activation returned to more classic patterns of activation, reflecting the consequences of therapy. CONCLUSION: In paretic patients with brain tumours, ipsilateral control could be implicated in the residual hand function, when the normal primary pathways are impaired. The possibility that functional tissue still remains in the peritumorous sensorimotor cortex even when the preoperative fMRI and the cortical intraoperative stimulations are negative, should be taken into account when planning the tumour resection and during the operation. (+info)
Intraoperative sonographic assessment of graft patency during extracranial-intracranial bypass.
Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass may be necessary to facilitate treatment of unclippable posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms. Although intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) allows assessment of graft patency, this technique, because of difficulties inherent in performing selective catheterization and angiography in the operating room, has limitations. Duplex sonography, in contrast, is easily performed, and provides information regarding graft patency and blood flow direction during EC-IC bypass procedures. This latter information proved useful in determining the time of parent artery occlusion after two EC-IC bypass procedures performed for treatment of a fusiform midbasilar artery aneurysm. (+info)
Intraoperative parathyroid hormone analysis: A study of 200 consecutive cases.
BACKGROUND: Immunoassays for parathyroid hormone (PTH), with short incubation times and results available in <15 min, have allowed intraoperative monitoring of the success of parathyroid surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of a rapid PTH assay and its clinical performance in a series of 200 patients. METHODS: PTH was measured with a modified immunochemiluminometric assay with a 7-min incubation time (QuiCk-IntraOperative(TM) Intact PTH assay). The rapid assay was compared with results in a central laboratory (immunoradiometric assay) in 44 EDTA-plasma specimens. The rapid assay was used intraoperatively in 200 consecutive cases with specimens analyzed before and 5-10 min after resection of the hypersecreting parathyroid gland(s). RESULTS: Intraassay imprecision was 12% at 28 ng/L and 11% at 278 ng/L. Regression analysis of results of the rapid PTH assay and the IRMA PTH assay in 44 parathyroidectomy patients yielded y = 1.26x - 12 ng/L, S:(y|x) = 26.3 ng/L, r = 0.984, and in 40 of 44 patients with values <200 ng/L, y = 1.02x + 1.9, S:(y|x) = 13.9, r = 0.947. In the 195 cases using intraoperative PTH testing with complete results and defined clinical outcomes, the overall accuracy of the assay in predicting surgical success was 88% using the criterion of a 50% decrease at 5-10 min and 97% including the subset of patients with delayed decreases of PTH. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid PTH assay had excellent analytical performance and excellent agreement with the PTH immunoradiometric assay and predicted the success of parathyroid surgery in this large series of consecutive patients. (+info)
Intra-operative blood loss and operating time in orthognathic surgery using induced hypotensive general anaesthesia: prospective study.
We investigated the average operating time and extent of intra-operative blood loss in orthognathic surgeries performed using induced hypotensive general anaesthesia, with the intention of devising a practical guideline for blood unit preparation for these procedures. We prospectively studied 32 Chinese patients undergoing surgery to correct dentofacial deformities at a public hospital in Hong Kong from 1 December 1997 to 1 December 1998. Most patients (72. 4%) needed double-jaw surgery. The mean estimated blood loss was approximately 617.6 mL. The blood loss during simple Le Fort I osteotomies was about half that of multiple segmentalised osteotomies. For mandibular ramus osteotomies, the mean blood loss and operating time for were approximately 280 mL and 2 hours, respectively; for anterior mandibular osteotomies, the corresponding values were 171.3 mL and 1 hour 13 minutes. The average drop in the haematocrit value was 15.4%, and the crossmatch to transfusion ratio was 29. A bivariate correlation test between the blood loss and operating time gave a strong correlation (P<0.01), as did blood loss with a drop in haematocrit value (P<0.01). Orthognathic surgeries are thus safe and predictable in terms of intra-operative blood loss and operating time, and a 'type, screen, and save' policy for blood unit preparation is more appropriate than a 'crossmatch' policy. (+info)
Prosthesis-patient mismatch affects survival after aortic valve replacement.
BACKGROUND: Surgeons traditionally avoid the use of "small" aortic prostheses because of the potential for residual left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and persistent transvalvular gradients. This study examines the ratio between prosthetic valve size and the body surface area (BSA) of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). We sought to determine the effect of potential "prosthesis-patient" mismatch on long-term survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: Follow-up was conducted on 2981 patients who underwent AVR with stented bioprostheses between 1976 and 1996. To account for differences between manufacturers' labeled valve sizes, we calculated the ratio between the prosthetic valve effective orifice area (EOA) and the patient's BSA (recorded for 2154 patients). The lowest decile in this cohort had a calculated EOA/BSA of <0.75 cm(2)/m(2) (Small group, n=227) compared with the control group (n=1927), in whom the EOA/BSA ratio was >0.75 cm(2)/m(2). Operative mortality was higher in the Small group (8% versus 5%, P:=0.03). Actuarial survival at 12 years was 50+/-5% in the Small group compared with 49+/-2% in the control group (P:=0.27). However, freedom from valve-related mortality was significantly lower in the Small group (75+/-5% versus 84+/-2%, P:=0.004). Cox regression analysis determined age and NYHA functional class to be the multivariate predictors of overall mortality, whereas advanced age and EOA/BSA <0.75 cm(2)/m(2) were found to be the predictors of valve-related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Prosthesis-patient mismatch results in significantly higher early and late mortality after bioprosthetic AVR. We recommend careful selection of stented bioprostheses to ensure an adequate ratio of EOA to BSA. An EOA/BSA ratio of >0.75 cm(2)/m(2) may avoid residual left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and persistent transvalvular gradients. Careful prosthesis-patient matching will improve both early and late survival after AVR. (+info)
Humoral immune response during coronary artery bypass grafting: A comparison of limited approach, "off-pump" technique, and conventional cardiopulmonary bypass.
BACKGROUND: The introduction of limited approaches to the heart and the avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) aim to reduce the invasiveness of CABG by decreasing the systemic release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8, as well as the anti-inflammatory agent IL-10. This study compares the humoral immune response in patients undergoing CABG with standard, minimally invasive, and "off-pump" techniques. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients were divided into 3 operative groups: full sternotomy approach plus CPB (group A); full sternotomy approach, off pump (group B); and limited left anterior thoracotomy, off pump (group C). Plasma levels of TNF-alpha receptors p55 and p75, IL 6, IL-8, and IL-10 were taken at baseline, during CPB, and at 4, 24, and 48 hours and 6 days after surgery. A significant increased release of activated complement factors C5a and C3d, IL-8, and IL-10 was observed in patients subjected to CPB (group A) during the initial period and for a short time after perfusion (P:<0.05). TNF-alpha receptors p55 and p75 showed a prolonged elevation (up to 48 hours) in the CPB group compared with the 2 off-pump groups. IL-6 showed no different release among the 3 surgical groups throughout the entire period. There was no significant difference in any parameter measured in relation to the type of operative approach. CONCLUSIONS: There is an inflammatory, as well as an anti-inflammatory, response during CABG that is related to the general surgical trauma. The release of immune mediators is enhanced by the use of CPB during various perioperative and postoperative phases. The type of operative approach did not influence this immune response. (+info)
Endoillumination during vitrectomy and phototoxicity thresholds.
AIM: To assess the retinal phototoxicity hazards of and to provide safety margins for endoillumination during vitrectomy. METHODS: The absolute power and spectral distribution from various light sources and filter combinations that are commercially available for vitreous surgery were measured. The maximal exposure times based on the ICNIRP safety guidelines for photochemical and thermal injury of the aphakic eye were calculated. Additionally, the effect of various measures that reduce the risk of phototoxicity was evaluated. RESULTS: Measurements of the spectrum and energy indicated that the ICNIRP safety guidelines for photochemical retinal damage are exceeded within 1 minute for nine out of 10 combinations tested. With an additional 475 nm long pass filter, light levels below 10 mW, and a distance from light probe to retina of at least 10 mm, the allowable exposure time can be increased up to 13 minutes. Thermal damage can be anticipated when the light probe touches the retina. CONCLUSION: Commercially available light sources for endoillumination during vitrectomy are not safe with respect to photochemical retinal damage. Even with maximal precautions macular phototoxic damage remains a factual danger during vitrectomy. (+info)