Supplemental intraoperative oxygen augments antimicrobial and proinflammatory responses of alveolar macrophages.
BACKGROUND: The first goal was to test the hypothesis that 100% inspired oxygen maintained for approximately 8 h intraoperatively is not associated with impaired pulmonary oxygenation. The authors also tested the hypothesis that intraoperative inhalation of 100% oxygen augments proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses of alveolar macrophages during anesthesia and surgery. METHODS: The authors studied patients administered 100% oxygen (n = 30) and 30% oxygen (n = 30) during propofol-fentanyl general anesthesia. Alveolar macrophages were harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage immediately, 2, 4, and 6 h after induction of anesthesia, and at the end of surgery. The authors measured "opsonized" and "unopsonized" phagocytosis and microbicidal activity. RNA was extracted from harvested cells and cDNA was synthesized. The expression of interleukin(IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Gene expression of all proinflammatory cytokines except IL-6 increased fourfold to 20-fold over time in both groups. However, expression of TNF-alpha and IL-8, IFN-gamma, and IL-6 and IL-1beta was 2-20 times greater in patients administered 100% than in those administered 30% oxygen. Unopsonized and opsonized phagocytosis and microbicidal activity decreased progressively, with the decreases being nearly twice as great during inhalation of 30% oxygen versus 100% oxygen. CONCLUSION: Inhalation of 100% oxygen improved intraoperative decreases in phagocytic and microbicidal activity possibly because expression of proinflammatory cytokines was augmented. These data therefore suggest that intraoperative inhalation of 100% oxygen augments antimicrobial and proinflammatory responses in alveolar macrophages during anesthesia and surgery. (+info)
Relation between perioperative hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage after craniotomy.
BACKGROUND: Previous data suggest that systemic hypertension (HTN) is a risk factor for postcraniotomy intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The authors examined the relation between perioperative blood pressure elevation and postoperative ICH using a retrospective case control design. METHODS: The hospital's database of all patients undergoing craniotomy from 1976 to 1992 was screened. Coagulopathic and unmatchable patients were excluded. There were 69 evaluable patients who developed ICH postoperatively (n = 69). A 2-to-1 matched (by age, date of surgery, pathologic diagnosis, surgical procedure, and surgeon) control group without postoperative ICH was assembled (n = 138). Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative blood pressure records (up to 12 h) were examined. Incidence of perioperative HTN (blood pressure > or = 160/90 mmHg) and odds ratios for ICH were determined. RESULTS: Of the 11,214 craniotomy patients, 86 (0.77%) suffered ICH, and 69 fulfilled inclusion criteria. The incidence of preoperative HTN was similar in the ICH (34%) and the control (24%) groups. ICH occurred 21 h (median) postoperatively, with an interquartile range of 4-52 h. Sixty-two percent of ICH patients had intraoperative HTN, compared with only 34% of controls (P < 0.001). Sixty-two percent of the ICH patients had prehemorrhage HTN in the initial 12 postoperative hours versus 25% of controls (P < 0.001), with an odds ratio of 4.6 (P < 0.001) for postoperative ICH. Hospital stay (median, 24.5 vs. 11.0 days), and mortality (18.2 vs. 1.6%) were significantly greater in the ICH than in the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: ICH after craniotomy is associated with severely prolonged hospital stay and mortality. Acute blood pressure elevations occur frequently prior to postcraniotomy ICH. Patients who develop postcraniotomy ICH are more likely to be hypertensive in the intraoperative and early postoperative periods. (+info)
Correlation properties and complexity of perioperative RR-interval dynamics in coronary artery bypass surgery patients.
BACKGROUND: Dynamic measures of heart rate variability (HRV) may uncover abnormalities that are not easily detectable with traditional time and frequency domain measures. The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in RR-interval dynamics in the immediate postoperative phase of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using traditional and selected newer dynamic measures of HRV. METHODS: Continuous 24-h electrocardiograph recordings were performed in 40 elective CABG surgery patients up to 72 h postoperatively. In one half of the patients, Holter recordings were initiated 12-40 h before the surgery. Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were assessed. The dynamic measures included a quantitative and visual analysis of Poincare plots, measurement of short- and intermediate-term fractal-like scaling exponents (alpha1 and alpha2), the slope (beta) of the power-law regression line of RR-interval dynamics, and approximate entropy. RESULTS: The SD of RR intervals (P < 0.001) and the ultra-low-, very-low-, low-, and high-frequency power (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, respectively) measures in the first postoperative 24 h decreased from the preoperative values. Analysis of Poincare plots revealed increased randomness in beat-to-beat heart rate behavior demonstrated by an increase in the ratio between short-term and long-term HRV (P < 0.001) after CABG. Average scaling exponent alpha1 of the 3 postoperative days decreased significantly after CABG (from 1.22 +/- 0.15 to 0.85 +/- 0.20, P < 0.001), indicating increased randomness of short-term heart rate dynamics (i.e., loss of fractal-like heart rate dynamics). Reduced scaling exponent alpha1 of the first postoperative 24 h was the best HRV measure in differentiating between the patients that had normal ( 48 h, n = 7) intensive care unit stay (0.85 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.18; P < 0.05). In stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis including typical clinical predictors, alpha1 was the most significant independent predictor (P < 0.05) of long intensive care unit stay. None of the preoperative HRV measures were able to predict prolonged intensive care unit stays. CONCLUSIONS: In the selected group of patients studied, a decrease in overall HRV was associated with altered nonlinear heart rate dynamics after CABG surgery. Current results suggest that a more random short-term heart rate behavior may be associated with a complicated clinical course. Analysis of fractal-like dynamics of heart rate may provide new perspectives in detecting abnormal cardiovascular function after CABG. (+info)
Lumbar plexus block reduces pain and blood loss associated with total hip arthroplasty.
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of peripheral nerve blockade in the anesthetic management of hip surgery has not been clearly established. Because sensory afferents from the hip include several branches of the lumbar plexus, the authors hypothesized that a lumbar plexus block could reduce pain from a major hip procedure. METHODS: In a double-blind prospective trial, 60 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty were randomized to receive general anesthesia with (plexus group, n = 30) or without (control group, n = 30) a posterior lumbar plexus block. The block was performed after induction using a nerve stimulator, and 0.4 ml/kg bupivacaine, 0.5%, with epinephrine was injected. General anesthesia was standardized, and supplemental fentanyl was administered per hemodynamic guidelines. Postoperative pain and patient-controlled intravenous morphine use were serially assessed for 48 h. RESULTS: The proportion of patients receiving supplemental fentanyl intraoperatively was more than 3 times greater in the control group (20 of 30 vs. 6 of 29, P = 0.001). In the postanesthesia care unit, a greater than fourfold reduction in pain scores was observed in the plexus group (visual analogue scale [VAS] pain score at arrival 1.3 +/- 2 vs. 5.6 +/- 3, P < 0.001), and "rescue" morphine boluses (administered if VAS > 3) were administered 10 times less frequently (in 2 of 28 vs. in 22 of 29 patients, P < 0.0001). Pain scores and morphine consumption remained significantly lower in the plexus group until 6 h after randomization (VAS at 6 h, 1.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 1.4, P = 0.007; cumulative morphine at 6 h, 5.6 +/- 4.7 vs. 12.6 +/- 7.5 mg, P < 0.0001). Operative and postoperative (48 h) blood loss was modestly decreased in the treated group. Epidural-like distribution of anesthesia occurred in 3 of 28 plexus group patients, but no other side-effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Posterior lumbar plexus block provides effective analgesia for total hip arthroplasty, reducing intra- and postoperative opioid requirements. Moreover, blood loss during and after the procedure is diminished. Epidural anesthetic distribution should be anticipated in a minority of cases. (+info)
Detection of hematogenic tumor cell dissemination in patients undergoing resection of liver metastases of colorectal cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of pre- and intraoperative hematogenic tumor cell dissemination in patients undergoing liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: For patients with hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer, liver resection is the only potentially curative therapy. However, 38% to 53% of patients develop extrahepatic tumor recurrence, probably caused by tumor cells disseminated before or during surgery not detected by current staging systems. METHODS: Blood samples harvested before, during, and after surgery from 41 patients and bone marrow samples from 30 patients undergoing resection of liver metastases of colorectal cancer were analyzed for disseminated tumor cells using cytokeratin 20 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Tumor cells were detected in the blood samples of 26 of the 41 patients (63.4%) and in the bone marrow samples of 8 of the 30 patients (26.7%). Tumor cells were detected significantly more often during surgery than before or after surgery. Intraoperative tumor cell dissemination was detected in 41.7% of patients undergoing resection of two or more liver segments but only 14.3% of patients undergoing resection of one liver segment. Compared with resection of primary colorectal cancer, major liver resection carries an increased risk for intraoperative tumor cell dissemination. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of disseminated tumor cells in patients undergoing liver resection for metastases of colorectal cancer using cytokeratin 20 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction might help to identify patients at high risk for tumor recurrence who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Major liver resection of metastases leads to frequent intraoperative tumor cell shedding, possibly preventable by alternative surgical strategies. (+info)
The human heart rate response profiles to five vagal maneuvers.
Healthy teens and adults performed four vagotonic maneuvers. A large series of strabismus surgery patients had deliberately quantified tension on extraocular rectus muscles during general anesthesia. The mean bradycardia was greatest for diving response (apneic facial exposure to cold) and Valsalva maneuver and least for pressure on the globe and carotid sinus massage. Bradycardia occurred for every subject for the non-surgical maneuvers, however, extraocular muscle tension frequently caused no change in heart rate or even tachycardia. The inter-subject variance in percent heart rate change was greatest for surgical oculocardiac reflex. Of the rectus muscles, the inferior caused the most bradycardia while the lateral caused the least. The percent oculocardiac reflex was not age dependent. Occasional patients demonstrated profound bradycardia with strabismus surgery. Of these maneuvers, diving response has theoretical advantage in treating paroxysmal atrial tachycardia. The human cardiac vagal efferent was stimulated by several carefully controlled maneuvers resulting in wide inter-maneuver differences in bradycardia magnitude. The greatest intra-maneuver variability occurred with surgical oculocardiac reflex. (+info)
BACKGROUND: Rapid development of acute opioid tolerance is well established in animals and is more likely to occur with large doses of short-acting drugs. The authors therefore tested the hypothesis that intraoperative remifentanil administration results in acute opioid tolerance that is manifested by increased postoperative pain and opioid requirement. METHODS: Fifty adult patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to two anesthetic regimens: (1) desflurane was kept constant at 0.5 minimum alveolar concentrations and a remifentanil infusion was titrated to autonomic responses (remifentanil group); or (2) remifentanil at 0.1 microg. kg-1. min-1 and desflurane titrated to autonomic responses (desflurane group). All patients were given a bolus of 0.15 mg/kg morphine 40 min before the end of surgery. Morphine was initially titrated to need by postanesthesia care nurses blinded to group assignment. Subsequently, patients-who were also blinded to group assignment-controlled their own morphine administration. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded for 24 postoperative h. RESULTS: The mean remifentanil infusion rate was 0.3 +/- 0.2 microg. kg-1. min-1 in the remifentanil group, which was significantly greater than in the desflurane group. Intraoperative hemodynamic responses were similar in each group. Postoperative pain scores were significantly greater in the remifentanil group. These patients required morphine significantly earlier than those in the desflurane group and needed nearly twice as much morphine in the first 24 postoperative h: 59 mg (25-75% interquartile range, 43-71) versus 32 mg (25-75% interquartile range, 19-59; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Relatively large-dose intraoperative remifentanil increased postoperative pain and morphine consumption. These data suggest that remifentanil causes acute opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia. (+info)
A prospective randomised trial of tourniquet in varicose vein surgery.
A prospective randomised trial of 50 patients was carried out to assess the autoclavable Lofquist cuff (Boazal, Sweden) as a tourniquet in varicose vein surgery and determine the effect on bleeding, bruising, cosmesis and patient pain and activity. Patients undergoing unilateral long saphenous vein ligation, stripping and avulsions were randomised to tourniquet or no tourniquet. Lofquist cuffs were applied after inflation to 120 mmHg to the upper thigh for the duration of the surgery. Varicose vein grade, duration of surgery, blood loss, extent of bruising at 7 days, pain and activity scores over the first week, and wound complications and cosmetic result at 6 weeks were recorded. Patients' age, sex, and varicose vein grade were similar in the two groups. Peroperative blood loss (median, range) was significantly reduced in the tourniquet group (0 ml, 0-20 ml) compared to the no tourniquet group (125 ml, 20-300; P < 0.01). Operative time and thigh bruising (median, range) were also reduced in the tourniquet group (30 min, 11-47 min; 72 cm2, 30-429 cm2), respectively, compared to the no tourniquet group (37 min, 18-50 min; 179 cm2, 24-669 cm2) both (P < 0.01). There was no difference in pain and activity scores in the two groups and cosmetic results were also similar. The use of the Lofquist cuff tourniquet during varicose vein surgery reduces peroperative blood loss, operative time and postoperative bruising without any obvious drawbacks. (+info)