Evaluation of intraoperative radiation therapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer with FDG PET.
This investigation was undertaken to evaluate 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in monitoring patients after intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for unresectable pancreatic cancer and to compare its usefulness with CT. METHODS: FDG PET was performed in 12 consecutive unresectable ductal adenocarcinoma patients before (n = 12) and after IORT (0.7-11.9 mo, n = 14). In the follow-up period, FDG PET results after IORT were divided into three groups: early (0-2.0 mo after IORT, n = 7), intermediate (2.1-4.0 mo, n = 5) and delayed period (4.1 mo or later, n = 2). FDG uptake at 60 min after injection of 185 MBq FDG under fasting conditions was analyzed with standardized uptake value (SUV). Three parameters, the highest SUV in the tumor, the area of tumor showing SUV of more than 2.0 and the average SUV in the tumor area were calculated. Ratios of each parameter after IORT to that before IORT were defined as residual uptake ratio (RUR)-1, -2 and -3, respectively. Tumor regression after IORT was evaluated with CT as tumor size ratio (TSR) every 2 mo. RESULTS: Results of RUR-1 and -3 were consistent with tumor size measured by CT. They decreased in 10 patients with partial response and increased in 2 patients with no change, although these 2 patients had abscesses. RUR-3 decreased consistently as 0.65+/-0.33 in 2 mo, 0.51+/-0.39 in 4 mo and 0.24 in 4 mo or later after IORT, respectively. RUR-1 decreased in early period, but demonstrated no change through the remaining periods. There were discrepancies between the results of RUR-2 and those of the other RURs. CT results revealed a slow decrease in tumor size, because TSR was 0.91 +/-0.10, 0.76+/-0.11 and 0.70+/-0.18 in 2, 4 and 6 mo after IORT, respectively. RUR-3 was smaller than TSR at 2 mo (P < 0.05) and 4 mo (P = 0.056). These results indicate that the measurement of the average SUV in the tumor area with FDG PET could evaluate the local response of pancreatic cancer after IORT earlier and more markedly than with CT. CONCLUSION: FDG PET was useful in monitoring patients after IORT, because the decrease of metabolism in pancreatic tumor could be detected earlier than the decrease in tumor size. (+info)
Inhibition of liver protein synthesis during laparoscopic surgery.
Previous studies have indicated that laparoscopic surgery is associated with a decline in liver protein synthesis. In this study, the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of total liver protein and albumin was measured in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at different times after commencing the procedure (n = 8 + 8). Liver biopsy specimens were taken after 15 min of surgery in an "early" group and after 49 min of surgery in a "late" group. The liver FSR was higher in the early group (24.1 +/- 4.7%/day) compared with the late group (19.0 +/- 2.8%/day, P < 0.02). The fractional and absolute synthesis rates of albumin were similar in the two groups, 6.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 6.5 +/- 1.0%/day and 97 +/- 19 vs. 96 +/- 18 mg. kg(-1). day(-1) for the early and late groups, respectively. It is concluded that laparoscopic surgery was accompanied by a decrease in total liver protein synthesis rate, which developed rapidly during surgery. In contrast, no change in the synthesis rate of albumin was apparent during the course of surgery. (+info)
Intraoperative bacterial contamination in operations for joint replacement.
All surgical operations have the potential for contamination, and the equipment used can harbour bacteria. We collected samples from 100 elective primary hip and knee arthroplasties. These showed rates of contamination of 11.4% for the sucker tips, 14.5% for light handles, 9.4% for skin blades and 3.2% for the inside blades used during surgery; 28.7% of gloves used for preparation were also contaminated. Of the samples taken from the collection bags used during hip arthroplasty, 20% grew bacteria, which represents a significant microbial reservoir. Also, 17% of theatre gowns were contaminated at the end of the operation. Contamination was found in 10% of the needles used during closure of the fascia. Overall, 76% of the organisms grown were coagulase-negative staphylococcus. A total of 63% of operations showed contamination in the field of operation. Some changes in practice are suggested. Follow-up for a minimum of two years revealed one deep infection but the organism was not identified as a contaminant. These data provide a baseline for studying the bacteriology of the surgery of revision arthroplasty. (+info)
Intrathecal ropivacaine for ambulatory surgery.
BACKGROUND: The rationale of this study was to evaluate intrathecal ropivacaine for ambulatory surgery. METHODS: One hundred fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 scheduled for knee arthroscopy were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 4 ml of one of five isobaric intrathecal solutions: Patients in group 1 (n = 30) received 8 mg of bupivacaine; patients in group 2 (n = 30) received 8 mg ropivacaine; patients in group 3 (n = 30) received 10 mg ropivacaine; patients in group 4 (n = 30) received 12 mg ropivacaine; and patients in group 5 (n = 30) received 14 mg ropivacaine. The level and duration of sensory anesthesia were recorded along with the intensity and duration of motor block. Patients were interviewed to identify transient neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Intrathecal ropivacaine 10 mg produced shorter sensory anesthesia and motor blockade than bupivacaine 8mg (152 +/- 44 min and 135 +/- 41 min vs. 181 +/- 44 min and 169 +/- 52 min, mean +/- SD; P < 0.05). However, the quality of intraoperative analgesia was significantly lower in the 10-mg ropivacaine group (P < 0.05). Ropivacaine 12 mg produced sensory and motor block almost comparable to bupivacaine 8 mg. Ropivacaine 14 mg produced sensory and motor block comparable to ropivacaine 12 mg but significantly increased the time to void. No sign of transient radicular irritation were noted. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal ropivacaine 12 mg is approximately equivalent to bupivacaine 8 mg. At this dose, ropivacaine offers no significant advantage compared with bupivacaine. (+info)
Supplemental oxygen reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
BACKGROUND: Despite new anesthetic drugs and antiemetics, particularly 5-hydroxytryptamines, the incidence of postoperative nausea or vomiting remains between 20% and 70%. The authors tested the hypothesis that supplemental perioperative oxygen administration reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea or vomiting. METHODS: Patients undergoing colon resection were anesthetized with fentanyl and isoflurane. During and for 2 h after surgery they were randomly assigned to (1) 30% oxygen, balance nitrogen (n = 119); or (2) 80% oxygen, balance nitrogen (n = 112). The incidence of nausea or vomiting during the first 24 postoperative hours was evaluated by nurses blinded to group assignment and oxygen concentration. Data were analyzed with unpaired t or Mann-Whitney U tests. Results are presented as means +/- SD; P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Factors known to influence nausea and vomiting were comparable in the two groups. Perioperative oxygen saturation was well within normal limits in each treatment group; saturations the first postoperative morning were comparable in each group. Supplemental oxygen reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea or vomiting from 30% in the patients given 30% oxygen to 17% in those given 80% oxygen (P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental oxygen reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea or vomiting nearly twofold after colorectal surgery. The mechanism by which oxygen administration reduces the incidence of these postoperative sequelae remains unknown but may be related to subtle intestinal ischemia. Because oxygen is inexpensive and essentially risk-free, supplemental oxygen appears to be an effective method of reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. (+info)
Caudal block in children: ropivacaine compared with bupivacaine.
BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine provides reliable, long-lasting anesthesia and analgesia when given via the caudal route. Ropivacaine is a newer, long-acting local anesthetic that (at a concentration providing similar pain relief) has less motor nerve blockade and may have less cardiotoxicity than bupivacaine. METHODS: In a double-blind trial, 81 healthy children, undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures, were randomly allocated to receive caudal analgesia with either bupivacaine or ropivacaine, 0.25%, 1 mVkg. All blocks were placed by an attending anesthesiologist or an anesthesia fellow after induction of general anesthesia. RESULTS: Data were available for 75 children. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics or in anesthesia, surgery, recovery room, or day surgery unit durations. The quality and duration of postoperative pain relief did not differ. Motor and sensory effects were similar. Time to first micturition did not differ. CONCLUSION: Ropivacaine (0.25%, 1 ml/kg) provided adequate postoperative analgesia with no difference from bupivacaine (0.25%, 1 ml/kg) in quality and duration of pain relief, motor and sensory effects, or time to first micturition in our study children. (+info)
Open MR imaging in spine surgery: experimental investigations and first clinical experiences.
INTRODUCTION: The latest open MRI technology allows to perform open and closed surgical procedures under real-time imaging. Before performing spinal trauma surgery preclinical examinations had to be done to evaluate the artifacts caused by the implants. METHODS: The MRT presented is a prototype developed by GE. Two vertically positioned magnetic coils are installed in an operation theater. By that means two surgeons are able to access the patient between the two coils. Numerous tests regarding the material of instruments and implants were necessary in advance. The specific size of the artifact depending on the pulse sequence and the positioning within the magnetic field had to be examined. RESULTS: The magnifying factors of the artifact in the spin echo sequence regarding titanium are between 1.7 and 3.2, depending on the direction of the magnetic vector. Regarding stainless steel they are between 8.4 and 8.5. In the gradient echo sequence the factors are between 7.5 and 7.7 for titanium and between 16.9 and 18.0 for stainless steel. The tip of an implant is imaged with an accuracy of 0 to 2 mm. Since September 1997 16 patients with unstable fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine have been treated by dorsal instrumentation in the open MRI. Percutaneous insertion of the internal fixator has proven a successful minimally invasive procedure. The positioning of the screws in the pedicle is secure, the degree of indirect reduction of the posterior wall of the vertebral body can be imaged immediately. The diameter of the spinal canal can be determined in any plane. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The open MRI has proven useful in orthopedic and trauma surgery. The size and configuration of the artifacts caused by instruments and implants is predictable. Therefore exact positioning of the implants is achieved more easily. Dorsal instrumentation of unstable thoracolumbar fractures with a percutaneous technique has turned out safe and less traumatic under MR-imaging. Real-time imaging of soft tissue and bone in any plane improves security for the patient and allows the surgeon to work less invasively and more precisely. (+info)
End-tidal sevoflurane concentration for tracheal extubation (MACEX) in adults: comparison with isoflurane.
Sevoflurane has a non-pungent odour and provides smooth induction of anaesthesia. In contrast, isoflurane is irritating to the airway when used for induction, and this may also be evident during emergence from anaesthesia. We measured the end-tidal concentration of anaesthetic that prevented response to extubation in 50% of patients (MACEX) in adults receiving either sevoflurane or isoflurane. Airway complications during emergence from anaesthesia were also noted. We studied 51 adult patients, ASA 1, aged 36-59 yr. Patients received sevoflurane (n = 29) or isoflurane (n = 22) for elective intraocular surgery. The concentration at which extubation was attempted was determined by a modification of Dixon's up-and-down method. When tracheal extubation was accomplished without coughing and gross purposeful muscular movements within 1 min after extubation, it was considered a smooth tracheal extubation. Patients who developed breath-holding or laryngospasm immediately after tracheal extubation were regarded as not having been extubated smoothly. In addition, patients were observed for respiratory events during the remainder of the emergence period. MACEX values for sevoflurane and isoflurane were 1.07% and 0.83%, respectively. ED95 values of sevoflurane and isoflurane were 2.04% and 1.19%, respectively. In 12 patients in the isoflurane group, extubation was smooth but six patients had coughing episodes during the remainder of the emergence period. In contrast, one of 15 patients in the sevoflurane group in whom tracheal extubation was smooth coughed later (P = 0.035). Airway obstruction was frequent when tracheal extubation was performed at end-tidal concentrations exceeding 1 MACEX for each anaesthetic. (+info)