Time course of neurone-specific enolase and S-100 protein release during and after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Serum neurone-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100 protein are well established as markers of cerebral injury, and have been used as markers of neuronal and glial cell damage, respectively, after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but the speed of their increase during CPB has not been studied. Therefore, we have investigated the time course of NSE and S-100 release during and after CPB. We studied 18 adult patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Standard hypothermic (32 degrees C) pulsatile bypass with membrane oxygenation was used. Blood samples were obtained at induction, before bypass, before rewarming, at the end of rewarming, 10 min, 1 h and 8 h after bypass and 1, 2 and 3 days after surgery. NSE and S-100 were assayed using immunoradiometric assay kits (Sangtec Medical). NSE and S-100 release followed similar time courses. Both increased sharply during bypass, reached peak concentrations at the end of rewarming (mean 25.55 (SEM 2.79) and 1.65 (0.23) microgram litre-1, respectively), had decreased significantly by the end of operation and returned to pre-bypass concentrations by the second day after surgery. No patient developed a major neurological deficit. When using NSE and S-100 assays to study cerebral dysfunction in relation to CPB, postoperative samples miss peak (end-bypass) concentrations, and studies should be designed to include intraoperative samples. (+info)
G894T polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with an enhanced vascular responsiveness to phenylephrine.
BACKGROUND: Differences in vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (PE) responsiveness have been largely evidenced in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Because nitric oxide (NO) strongly affects modulation of the vascular tone in response to vasopressor agents, we hypothesized that the G894T polymorphism of the endothelial NO synthase gene (eNOS) could be related to changes in the pressor response to PE. METHODS AND RESULTS: The protocol was performed in 68 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n=33) or valve surgery (n=35) in whom mean arterial pressure decreased below 65 mm Hg during normothermic CPB. Under constant and nonpulsatile pump flow conditions (2 to 2.4 L. min-1. m-2), a PE dose-response curve was generated by the cumulative injection of individual doses of PE (25 to 500 micrograms). The G894T polymorphism of the eNOS gene was determined, and 3 groups were defined according to genotype (TT, GT, and GG). Groups were similar with regard to perioperative characteristics. The PE dose-dependent response was significantly higher in the allele 894T carriers (TT and GT) than in the homozygote GG group (P=0.02), independently of possible confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: These results evidenced an enhanced responsiveness to alpha-adrenergic stimulation in patients with the 894T allele in the eNOS gene. (+info)
Erosion of the left ventricle by the epicardial patch of an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
A 56 year old man with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was admitted with chest pain and collapse. Erosion of the left ventricle by an epicardial patch was confirmed by thoracotomy, but surgical repair was impossible. This rare complication should be considered in patients with a history of cardioverter defibrillators implanted by thoracotomy. (+info)
Intraoperative assessment of technical perfection in carotid endarterectomy: a prospective analysis of 1305 completion procedures. Collaborators of the EVEREST study group. Eversion versus standard carotid endartectomy.
OBJECTIVE: to define the incidence of technical defects and the impact of technical errors on ipsilateral carotid occlusion, ipsilateral stroke, and early restenosis rates, we analysed 1305 patients undergoing carotid completion procedures. DESIGN: prospective multicentre study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: adequacy of CEA was assessed intraoperatively by angiography in 1004 (77%), by angioscopy in 299 (22%), and by duplex scan in two patients (1%). Arteriograms and angioscopic findings were interpreted at the time of the procedure by the operating surgeon, who also established the need for immediate surgical revision. RESULTS: perioperatively, 13 major strokes (0.9%, all ipsilateral) and six deaths (0.4%) were recorded. Overall, 112 defects (9%) were identified intraoperatively: 81 (72%) were located in the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and 31 (28%) in the external carotid artery. In 48 patients (4%) the defects were revised. Logistic regression analysis revealed that carotid plaque extension >2 cm on the ICA was a positive independent predictor of CEA defects (odds ratio (OR) 1.5p=0.03). A significant association was found between the incidence of revised defects of the CCA and ICA and perioperative ipsilateral stroke (OR 11.5p=0.0002). In contrast, patients with minor non-revised defects had an ipsilateral stroke rate comparable to that of patients with no defects (p=0.4). No significant association was found between revised or non-revised defects and occurrence of restenosis/occlusion at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence of major technical defects during CEA is low, yet the perioperative neurological prognosis of patients with major defects warranting revision is poor. Completion angiography or angioscopy and possible correction of defects did not protect per se from an unfavourable early outcome after CEA. Therefore, surgical excellence is mandatory to achieve satisfactory results after CEA. (+info)
Locoregional versus general anesthesia in carotid surgery: is there an impact on perioperative myocardial ischemia? Results of a prospective monocentric randomized trial.
PURPOSE: The incidence of cardiac morbidity and mortality in patients who undergo carotid surgery ranges from 0.7% to 7.1%, but it still represents almost 50% of all perioperative complications. Because no data are available in literature about the impact of the anesthetic technique on such complications, a prospective randomized monocentric study was undertaken to evaluate the role of local anesthesia (LA) and general anesthesia (GA) on cardiac outcome. METHODS: From November 1995 to February 1998, 107 patients were classified by the cardiologist as cardiac patients (IHD; history of myocardial infarction, previous myocardial revascularization procedures, or myocardial ischemia documented by means of positive electrocardiogram [ECG] stress test results) or noncardiac patients (NIHD; no history of chest pain or negative results for an ECG stress test). The patients were operated on after the randomization for the type of anesthesia (general or local). Continuous computerized 12-lead ECG was performed during the operative procedure and 24 hours postoperatively. The end points of the study were ECG modifications (upsloping or downsloping more than 2 mm) of the sinus tachycardia (ST) segment. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were classified as IHD, and 52 were classified as NIHD. Twenty-seven of the 55 IHD patients (49%) and 24 of 52 NIHD patients (46%) were operated on under GA. Thirty-six episodes of myocardial ischemia occurred in 22 patients (20.5%). Episodes were slightly more frequent (58%) and longer in the postoperative period (intraoperative, 10 +/- 5 min; postoperative, 60 +/- 45 min; P <. 001). As expected, the prevalence of myocardial ischemia was higher in the group of cardiac patients than in noncardiac group (15 of 55 patients [27%] vs 7 of 52 patients [13%]; P <.02). By comparing the two anesthetic techniques in the overall population, we found a similar prevalence of patients who had myocardial ischemia (GA, 12 of 52 [23%]; LA, 10 of 55 [18%]; P = not significant) and a similar number of ischemic episodes per patient (GA, 1.5 +/- 0.4; LA, 1.8 +/- 0.6; P = not significant). Episodes of myocardial ischemia were similarly distributed in intraoperative and postoperative periods in both groups. It is relevant that under GA, IHD patients represent most of the population who suffered myocardial ischemia (83%). On the contrary, in the group of patients operated on under LA, the prevalence was equally distributed in the two subpopulations. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the different hemodynamic impact of the two anesthetic techniques. Patients who received LA had a rate of myocardial ischemia that was half that of patients who had GA. The small number of cardiac complications do not permit us to make any definitive conclusion on the impact of the two anesthetic techniques on early cardiac morbidity, but the relationship between perioperative ischemic burden and major cardiac events suggests that LA can be used safely, even in high-risk patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. (+info)
Prediction of oculocardiac reflex in strabismus surgery using neural networks.
Successfully predicting an oculocardiac reflex (OCR) is difficult to achieve despite various proposed maneuvers. The aim of this study was to test the models built up by neural networks to predict the occurrence of OCR during strabismus surgery in children. Premedication was not given. Atropine 0.01 mg/kg was medicated just before induction. Induction was performed with fentanyl or ketorolac, followed by propofol. Atracurium or vecuronium was given for intubation. Anesthesia was maintained with O2-N2O with continuous propofol infusion. Chi-square test was performed for induction agents, gender, weight, muscle blockade, repaired muscle, number of repaired muscles, duration of operation to detect any association between the occurrence of OCR and to develop the model of neural networks. The multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function and Bayesian backpropagation network were tested. The occurrence of OCR was significantly associated with gender and repaired muscle (p < 0.05). Gender, repaired muscle and age were considered as input for the multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function and Bayesian backpropagation network. Three neural networks had predicted the same correction rate in the occurrence of OCR as being 87.5% overall among 16 patients' records tested. These models are conceptually different in predicting compared to conventional maneuvers, and have the advantage of testing individually and foretelling the propensity. By comparison neural networks use grouped experiential data and predict OCR by the learning rule. Neural networks require a relatively abundant number of experienced and homogenous patients' records to establish an accurate model. The multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function and Bayesian backpropagation modeling network may be an alternative way, and preferable to vagal tone maneuvers if the associated relationships to the occurrence of OCR are more clearly defined. (+info)
Neuropsychological change and S-100 protein release in 130 unselected patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: S-100 protein promises to be a valuable surrogate end point for cerebral injury. This is of particular interest within the context of cardiac surgery. We sought to explore the relationship between change in neurospychological performance attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass and the release of brain-specific S-100 protein. METHODS: In an observational comparative study in a University Hospital Cardiac Surgical Unit, S-100 protein release during and 5 hours after the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass was compared with change (from preoperative to 6 to 8 weeks postoperative) in neuropsychological tests in 130 patients undergoing the full range of cardiac surgical procedures. RESULTS: Neuropsychological performance usually improved, being significantly so in 10 of 25 parameters. S-100 area under the curve (AUC) protein release correlated with age (r=0.24, P<0.008) and bypass time (r=0.17, P<0.02). S-100 Cmax correlated with bypass times (r=0.29, P<0.0001). Bypass times correlated with memory performance (Rey R5; r=-0.21, P<0.03). Less S-100 protein release was associated with better neuropsychological performance, as indexed by significant correlations with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning memory test, descending Critical Flicker Fusion thresholds, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating scales, typically around r=0.2. Multiple regression models showed that neuropsychological tests accounted for 23% of the variance associated with S-100 AUC release, after partialing out the effects of age and bypass time. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between S-100 protein release and neuropsychological function supports the belief that it is a measure of brain injury, which may be useful in future studies of mechanisms and prevention. (+info)
The changes of ventilatory parameters in laparoscopic colecystectomy.
We investigated the ventilatory changes in healthy patients without cardiopulmonary pathology during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the head-up position. During surgery, intraabdominal pressure was maintained at 15 mmHg by a CO2 insufflator, and minute ventilation was controlled with a constant tidal volume and fixed respiratory rate. PETCO2 was monitored continuously and recorded every minute. Basic hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were measured before anesthesia; after induction of anesthesia; at 5 min, 10 min and 30 min after peritoneal insufflation; and 5 min and 10 min after exsufflation. Arterial blood samples were obtained 3 times to calculate D(a-A)CO2, VD/VT, and Vco2. The latent period of PETCO2 change was 2.9 min, the ascending period was 12.6 min, and the descending period was 12.2 min. During the 71.5 min of pneumoperitoneum, V(I), VE, peak and plateau Paw increased, while Cdyn decreased significantly. Peritoneal insufflation or exsufflation also resulted in a significant change of D(a-A)CO2, D(a-A)O2, and Vco2. The anesthesiologist must be aware of both hemodynamic and ventilatory changes and must be ready to respond promptly and adequately. (+info)