Reduction of laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, postoperative pain and recovery room length of stay by pre-conditioning gas with the Insuflow device: a prospective randomized controlled multi-center study.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of Insuflow (Georgia BioMedical, Inc.) filter heater hydrator device in reducing the incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, length of recovery room stay and postoperative pain at the time of laparoscopy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled multi-center study. Patients underwent gynecologic procedures via laparoscopy; surgeons, anesthesiologists and recovery room personnel assessed the results. SETTING: Seven North American institutions. PATIENTS: Seventy-two women for safety evaluation and efficacy studies. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas with the Insuflow device (treatment) or standard raw gas (control) during laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, postoperative pain perception and length of recovery room stay. RESULTS: The Insuflow group had significantly less intraoperative hypothermia, reduced length of recovery room stay and reduced postoperative pain. Pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating was well tolerated with no adverse effects. The safety profile of the Insuflow pre-conditioned gas showed significant benefits compared to currently used raw gas. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-conditioning laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating with the Insuflow device was significantly more effective than the currently used standard raw gas and was safe in reducing or eliminating laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, shortening recovery room length of stay and reducing postoperative pain. (+info)
Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.
PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies. (+info)
Continuous versus intermittent portal triad clamping for liver resection: a controlled study.
OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the intra- and postoperative course of patients undergoing liver resections under continuous pedicular clamping (CPC) or intermittent pedicular clamping (IPC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Reduced blood loss during liver resection is achieved by pedicular clamping. There is controversy about the benefits of IPC over CPC in humans in terms of hepatocellular injury and blood loss control in normal and abnormal liver parenchyma. METHODS: Eighty-six patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under CPC (n = 42) or IPC (n = 44) with periods of 15 minutes of clamping and 5 minutes of unclamping. The data were further analyzed according to the presence (steatosis >20% and chronic liver disease) or absence of abnormal liver parenchyma. RESULTS: The two groups of patients were similar in terms of age, sex, nature of the liver tumors, results of preoperative assessment, proportion of patients undergoing major or minor hepatectomy, and nature of nontumorous liver parenchyma. Intraoperative blood loss during liver transsection was significantly higher in the IPC group. In the CPC group, postoperative liver enzymes and serum bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. Major postoperative deterioration of liver function occurred in four patients with abnormal liver parenchyma, with two postoperative deaths. All of them were in the CPC group. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical controlled study clearly demonstrated the better parenchymal tolerance to IPC over CPC, especially in patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. (+info)
Catheter-induced mechanical trauma to accessory pathways during radiofrequency ablation: incidence, predictors and clinical implications.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence, predictors and clinical implications of nonintentionally catheter-induced mechanical trauma to accessory pathways during radiofrequency ablation procedures. BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence and significance of catheter-induced trauma to accessory pathways are scarce. METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 381) undergoing radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways at two different institutions were closely monitored for appearance of mechanical block of accessory pathways during catheter manipulation. RESULTS: Mechanical trauma to accessory pathways was observed in 37 (9.7%) patients. According to a multivariate analysis, the only independent variable associated with this phenomenon was the anatomical pathway location (p = 0.0001). The incidence of trauma of either right anteroseptal (38.5%) or right atriofascicular pathways (33.3%) was significantly greater than that of pathways (< or =10%) at all remaining locations (p < 0.0001). The duration of conduction block observed ranged from < or =1 min to >30 min in 19% and 35% of patients, respectively. "Immediate" application of radiofrequency pulses at sites of mechanical block (<1 min after occurrence) was associated with a 78% long-term success rate at follow-up. This contrasted with a 25% long-term success rate in patients in whom pulses were delivered 30 min after occurrence of block ("delayed pulses"). Finally, in 24% of patients persistent trauma-induced conduction block led to discontinuation of the ablation procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma to accessory pathways is more common than previously recognized and frequently results in prolongation or discontinuation of the ablation procedure and in lower success rates. The only independent predictor of catheter-trauma to accessory pathways is the pathway location. (+info)
Influence of a platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist on myocardial hypoperfusion during rotational atherectomy as assessed by myocardial Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) antagonist abciximab on myocardial hypoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal rotational atherectomy (PTRA). BACKGROUND: PTRA may cause transient ischemia and periprocedural myocardial injury. A platelet-dependent risk of non-Q-wave infarctions after directional atherectomy has been described. The role of platelets for the incidence and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion during PTRA is unknown. METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive patients with complex lesions were studied using resting Tc-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography prior to PTRA, during, and 2 days after the procedure. The last 30 patients received periprocedural abciximab (group A) and their results were compared to the remaining 45 patients (group B). For semiquantitative analysis, myocardial perfusion in 24 left ventricular regions was expressed as percentage of maximal sestamibi uptake. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. Transient perfusion defects were observed in 39/45 (87%) patients of group B, but only in 10/30 (33%) patients of group A (p < 0.001). Perfusion was significantly reduced during PTRA in 3.3 +/- 2.5 regions in group B compared to 1.4 +/- 2.5 regions in group A (p < 0.01). Perfusion in the region with maximal reduction during PTRA in groups B and A was 76 +/- 15% and 76 +/- 15% at baseline, decreased to 56 +/- 16% (p < 0.001) and 67 +/- 14%, respectively, during PTRA (p < 0.01 A vs. B), and returned to 76 +/- 15% and 80 +/- 13%, respectively, after PTRA. Nine patients in group B (20%) and two patients in group A (7%) had mild creatine kinase and/or troponin t elevations (p = 0.18). Patients with elevated enzymes had larger perfusion defects than did patients without myocardial injury (4.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 2.3 +/- 2.5 regions, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that GPIIb/IIIa blockade reduces incidence, extent and severity of transient hypoperfusion during PTRA. Thus, platelet aggregation may play an important role for PTRA-induced hypoperfusion. (+info)
A policy of quality control assessment helps to reduce the risk of intraoperative stroke during carotid endarterectomy.
OBJECTIVES: A pilot study in our unit suggested that a combination of transcranial Doppler (TCD) plus completion angioscopy reduced incidence of intra-operative stroke (i.e. patients recovering from anaesthesia with a new deficit) during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The aim of the current study was to see whether routine implementation of this policy was both feasible and associated with a continued reduction in the rate of intraoperative stroke (IOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study in 252 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy between March 1995 and December 1996. RESULTS: Continuous TCD monitoring was possible in 229 patients (91%), while 238 patients (94%) underwent angioscopic examination. Overall, angioscopy identified an intimal flap requiring correction in six patients (2.5%), whilst intraluminal thrombus was removed in a further six patients (2.5%). No patient in this series recovered from anaesthesia with an IOS, but the rate of postoperative stroke was 2.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Our policy of TCD plus angioscopy has continued to contribute towards a sustained reduction in the risk of IOS following CEA, but requires access to reliable equipment and technical support. However, a policy of intraoperative quality control assessment may not necessarily alter the rate of postoperative stroke. (+info)
Gastrointestinal injuries during gynaecological laparoscopy.
A retrospective case review study was carried out on gastrointestinal injuries which occur during gynaecological laparoscopy. Fifty-six patients with 62 gastrointestinal injuries were identified. One-third of the complications (32.2%) occurred during the installation phase for laparoscopy. Four of the six complications attributed to electrosurgery were secondary to the use of monopolar coagulation. Diagnosis of these gastrointestinal injuries was made during surgery in only 20 patients (35.7%). The mean time before diagnosis was 4.0 +/- 5.4 (range 0-23) days. Treatment of these complications was performed by laparoscopic surgery in 16.1% of cases. Prevention relies on the surgeon's experience, strict observance of the safety rules, perfect familiarity with the physical properties of the instruments used, systematic use of bowel preparation for patients presenting a risk of bowel complications, systematic supervision of the route taken by the trocars, meticulous inspection on completion of surgery of all areas where bowel adhesiolysis has been used and, in case of any doubt, tests for leakage involving the rectosigmoid. For patients with a risk of bowel complications, the creation of a pneumoperitoneum and performing a mini laparoscopy in the left hypochondrium can be the judicious option. (+info)
Airway closure, atelectasis and gas exchange during general anaesthesia.
Airway closure and the formation of atelectasis have been proposed as important contributors to impairment of gas exchange during general anaesthesia. We have elucidated the relationships between each of these two mechanisms and gas exchange. We studied 35 adults with healthy lungs, undergoing elective surgery. Airway closure was measured using the foreign gas bolus technique, atelectasis was estimated by analysis of computed x-ray tomography, and ventilation-perfusion distribution (VA/Q) was assessed by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. The difference between closing volume and expiratory reserve volume (CV-ERV) increased from the awake to the anaesthetized state. Linear correlations were found between atelectasis and shunt (r = 0.68, P < 0.001), and between CV-ERV and the amount of perfusion to poorly ventilated lung units ("low Va/Q", r = 0.57, P = 0.001). Taken together, the amount of atelectasis and airway closure may explain 75% of the deterioration in PaO2. There was no significant correlation between CV-ERV and atelectasis. We conclude that in anaesthetized adults with healthy lungs, undergoing mechanical ventilation, both airway closure and atelectasis contributed to impairment of gas exchange. Atelectasis and airway closure do not seem to be closely related. (+info)