Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.
PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies. (+info)
A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens.
One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis. (+info)
Tramadol or morphine administered during operation: a study of immediate postoperative effects after abdominal hysterectomy.
Tramadol may cause awareness and EEG activation during anaesthesia. We compared tramadol with morphine, administered during wound-closure, surmising that tramadol may cause earlier awakening, more rapid recovery, less respiratory depression and equivalent pain relief. Forty patients received nitrous oxide-enflurane for abdominal surgery. At wound closure, patients received tramadol 3 mg kg-1 or morphine 0.2 mg kg-1 and end-tidal enflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.5 kPa until skin closure, whereupon anaesthesia was discontinued. Times to spontaneous respiration, awakening and orientation were similar in the two groups, as were blood-gas tensions, ventilatory frequency, pain scores and incidence of nausea. Half of each group required supplementary analgesia during their 90-min stay in the recovery room. P-deletion counts improved more rapidly in the tramadol group. This study confirms previous reports that tramadol did not antagonize the hypnotic effects of volatile anaesthetics. Tramadol, administered during operation, was as effective as morphine in providing postoperative analgesia while permitting more rapid psychomotor recovery. (+info)
A single dose of milrinone facilitates separation from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with pre-existing left ventricular dysfunction.
Milrinone is used during cardiac surgery to facilitate separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and/or to treat myocardial dysfunction in the post-bypass period. We have demonstrated, in patients with preoperative depression of systolic function undergoing aorto-coronary artery bypass surgery, sustained improvement in cardiac function after a single loading dose of milrinone 50 micrograms kg-1, administered at the end of bypass, thus significantly decreasing the need for beta-agonist therapy. (+info)
Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative injury involving the bile ducts, bowel, and vascular structures compared with open cholecystectomy (OC). Population-based studies are required to estimate the magnitude of the increased risk, to determine whether this is changing over time, and to identify ways by which this might be reduced. METHODS: Suspected cases of intraoperative injury associated with cholecystectomy in Western Australia in the period 1988 to 1994 were identified from routinely collected hospital statistical records and lists of persons undergoing postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The case records of suspect cases were reviewed to confirm the nature and site of injury. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of injury associated with LC compared with OC after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: After the introduction of LC in 1991, the proportion of all cholecystectomy cases with intraoperative injury increased from 0.67% in 1988-90 to 1.33% in 1993-94. Similar relative increases were observed in bile duct injuries, major bile leaks, and other injuries to bowel or vascular structures. Increases in intraoperative injury were observed in both LC and OC. After adjustment for age, gender, hospital type, severity of disease, intraoperative cholangiography, and calendar period, the odds ratio for intraoperative injury in LC compared with OC was 1.79. Operative cholangiography significantly reduced the risk of injury. CONCLUSION: Operative cholangiography has a protective effect for complications of cholecystectomy. Compared with OC, LC carries a nearly twofold higher risk of major bile, vascular, and bowel complications. Further study is required to determine the extent to which potentially preventable factors contribute to this risk. (+info)
I.v. intraoperative ketoprofen in small children during adenoidectomy: a dose-finding study.
We have investigated if a low dose of ketoprofen (0.3 mg kg-1) i.v., provided as good analgesia with less adverse effects than higher doses (1.0 and 3.0 mg kg-1) in 220 children, aged 1-7 yr, undergoing adenoidectomy, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The postoperative analgesic effect was notable even after the lowest dose of ketoprofen. However, the higher doses seemed to provide better analgesia with no increase in adverse events or intraoperative bleeding. None of the children experienced postoperative bleeding which would have required intervention or delayed discharge from hospital. This study confirms the efficacy and safety of intraoperative ketoprofen in children during adenoidectomy. (+info)
Metabolism of remifentanil during liver transplantation.
We have investigated the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil and its less potent metabolite, GR90291, in six adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A single bolus infusion of remifentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1 was given at the beginning of the dissection and anhepatic phases of OLT. Remifentanil and GR90291 concentrations were measured in subsequent serial arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Mean arterial clearance of remifentanil was significantly greater (P = 0.02) in the dissection phase (79.54 ml min-1 kg-1) than in the anhepatic phase (39.57 ml min-1 kg-1). Steady state volumes of distribution were not significantly different. Clearance of remifentanil during the anhepatic phase was similar to that of healthy adult patients. Mean maximum concentration (Cpmax) of GR90291 was lower in the dissection phase than in the anhepatic phase (P = 0.026). There was no significant pulmonary metabolism of remifentanil. (+info)
Timing and frequency of perioperative carotid color-flow duplex scanning: A preliminary report.
PURPOSE: The results of intraoperative and early postoperative carotid color-flow duplex scanning (CFS) after endarterectomy were reviewed to determine whether any perioperative studies could be eliminated. METHODS: Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy with intraoperative CFS between 1986 and 1997 were identified. Early postoperative CFS was performed between 1 day and 3 weeks postoperatively, then it was performed again at 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: During the study period, 560 patients, 325 men and 235 women, underwent 621 carotid endarterectomies. A satisfactory intraoperative carotid CFS was completed in 611 (98.4%) patients. There were 20 (3.2%) vessels with a major defect that required revision for fronds or flaps (n = 11), retained atheroma (n = 5), low flow (n = 2), high velocity or turbulence (n = 1), or dissection (n = 1). Another 146 vessels (23.5%) had minor defects, such as retained proximal atheromas or small (less than 3 mm) fronds, but were not revised. The remaining 445 vessels were normal. The first postoperative CFS was normal in all the revised carotids and in 138 (94.5%) vessels with minor intraoperative defects. At 6 months, recurrent stenosis (more than 75% area reduction) was identified in 1 of 18 revised carotids (5.5%), 4 of 138 vessels (2. 9%) with minor defects, and 17 of 406 vessels (4.2%) that were normal intraoperatively. The incidence of recurrent stenosis was not significantly different in the three groups (P =.7). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative CFS is useful because major unsuspected defects can be corrected immediately, thus avoiding potential neurologic morbidity. However, the postoperative day 1 CFS can be eliminated in most cases, because it does not provide any relevant clinical information. (+info)