(1/3147) Management of phacolytic glaucoma: experience of 135 cases.
We retrospectively analyzed 135 eyes with phacolytic glaucoma. A trabeculectomy was added to standard cataract surgery if symptoms endured for more than seven days, or if preoperative control of intraocular pressure (IOP) with maximal medical treatment was inadequate. In the early postoperative period, IOP was significantly lower in the combined surgery group (89 eyes) compared to the cataract surgery group (46 eyes) (p < 0.001). At 6 months there was no difference in IOP or visual acuity between the two groups. There were no serious complications related to trabeculectomy. It is reasonable to conclude that in eyes with a long duration of phacolytic glaucoma, addition of a trabeculectomy to cataract surgery is safe, prevents postoperative rise in intraocular pressure and decreases the need for systemic hypotensive medications. A randomized trial is on to further address this question. (+info)
(2/3147) Rapid pneumatic and Mackey-Marg applanation tonometry to evaluate the postural effect on intraocular pressure.
A postural study was conducted in three separate groups of subjects. The first group comprised 20 women volunteers with an average age of 20-75 years. In this group, the study was conducted by the pneumatonograph only. Mean pressure recorded was 15-65 +/- 0-25 mmHg and there was an average rise of 1-4 mmHg in supine posture. Groups 2 and 3 comprised 151 non-glaucomatous and 108 glaucomatous eyes respectively in the age range of 30 to 85 years. In these two groups, the study was conducted using the PTG and the Mackay-Marg tonometer. Clinical evaluation of the Mackay-Marg with the PTG gave significant correlation, with mean Mackay-Marg readings being 1-13 mmHg higher. The intraocular pressure when changing from seated to the supine position increased on average by 2-71 and 4-04 mmHg, respectively in Groups 2 and 3 and by 2-51 and 3-72 mmHg by Vackay-Marg, suggesting a higher change in glaucomatous subjects. Pressure on resumption of sitting was found to be lower than the initial pressure. Postural change also showed some direct relationship with age in non-glaucomatous subjects. (+info)
(3/3147) Asymmetry in optic disc parameters: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.
PURPOSE: To examine asymmetry in vertical optic disc parameters among subjects classified as normal, as having ocular hypertension (OH), and as having open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a population-based sample. METHODS: The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 people aged 49 to 97 years, including 2929 normal subjects, 118 with OH, and 79 with OAG in the groups of interest for the asymmetry study. Optic disc parameters were measured in a masked manner from stereo optic disc photographs. RESULTS: Vertical disc diameter asymmetry (the absolute value of left minus right disc diameters) was similar among normal, OH, and OAG groups (median, 0.07-0.08 mm). Vertical cup- disc ratio asymmetry was higher in patients with OAG (median, 0.11) than in normal subjects (median, 0.06; P < 0.0001) and in those with OH (median, 0.05; P < 0.0001) but was similar between normal subjects and patients with OH (P = 0.17). A cup- disc ratio asymmetry of 0.2 or more was found in 24% of patients with OAG, compared with 1% of patients with OH and 6% of normal subjects. Corresponding rates for cup- disc ratio asymmetry of 0.3 or more in these three groups were 10%, 0%, and 1%, respectively. Using multiple linear regression, cup-disc ratio asymmetry was associated with disc diameter asymmetry and intraocular pressure asymmetry. However, these two factors explained only 3% of the variability of cup- disc ratio asymmetry and 20% of cup diameter asymmetry. CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences between the OAG group and either the OH or normal groups, asymmetry alone was not useful in identifying patients with OAG. At all levels of asymmetry, subjects were more likely to be classified as normal than with OH or OAG. (+info)
(4/3147) Apoptosis and caspases after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat retina.
PURPOSE: Extensive cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and the inner nuclear layer (INL) was noted in a rat model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury by transient elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). The possible involvement of apoptosis and caspases was examined in this model of neuronal loss. METHODS: Transient elevated IOP was induced in albino Lewis rats through the insertion of a needle into the anterior chamber connected to a saline column. Elevated IOP at 110 mm Hg was maintained for 60 minutes. Groups of animals were euthanatized at various times after reperfusion, and their retinas were evaluated by morphology, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL), immunohistochemistry of caspases II (ICH1) and III (CPP32), and morphometry. YVAD.CMK, a tetrapeptide inhibitor of caspases, was used to examine the involvement of caspases. RESULTS: A marked ladder pattern in retinal DNA gel analysis, typical of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and characteristic of apoptosis, was present 12 and 18 hours after reperfusion. Labeling of nuclei in the RGCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL) by TUNEL was noted between 8 and 18 hours after reperfusion. Histologic and ultrastructural features typical of apoptosis were also observed in the inner retina after ischemia. YVAD.CMK administered during the ischemic period inhibited apoptotic fragmentation of retinal DNA and ameliorated the tissue damage. When administered intravitreally 0, 2, or 4 hours after reperfusion, YVAD.CMK was also effective in preserving the inner retina but had no significant effect when administered 6 or 8 hours after reperfusion. The inner retina showed transient elevated immunoreactivity of caspases II and III 4 and 8 hours after reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal ischemia-reperfusion after transient elevated IOP induced apoptosis of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer and the INL. Caspases may have a pivotal role in the early events of the apoptotic pathway(s). Rescue by using anti-apoptotic agents after ischemia-reperfusion is feasible. (+info)
(5/3147) Mechanism of exercise-induced ocular hypotension.
PURPOSE: Although acute dynamic exercise reduces intraocular pressure (IOP), the factors that provoke this response remain ill-defined. To determine whether changes in colloid osmotic pressure (COP) cause the IOP changes during exercise, standardized exercise was performed after dehydration and hydration with isosmotic fluid. METHODS: Progressive cycle ergometer exercise to volitional exhaustion was performed after 4 hours' dehydration, and after hydration with 946 ml isosmotic liquid (345 mOsM). In each experiment, venous blood taken before and immediately after exercise was analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein concentration, total plasma osmolality, and plasma COP. RESULTS: Exercise in both experiments significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP (each P < 0.01). Dehydration, compared with hydration, also significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP, when measured before and after exercise (P < 0.05). The correlation of mean IOP with mean COP, over the entire range created by varying exercise and hydration statuses, was statistically significant (r = -0.99; P < 0.001). In contrast, other indexes of hydration status, including hematocrit, total plasma osmolality, and plasma protein concentration, failed to change as IOP changed and failed to correlate with IOP, on either a group or individual basis, in conditions of varying levels of exercise and hydration. CONCLUSIONS: Acute dynamic exercise and isosmotic fluid ingestion each seem to change IOP through changes in COP. (+info)
(6/3147) A pharmacoeconomic analysis of rimexolone for the treatment of ophthalmic inflammatory conditions.
Topical steroids are the standard first-line therapy for treating ophthalmic inflammatory conditions. However, potent ophthalmic steroids can lead to an elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), which can result in greater medical resource utilization and increased costs. We have developed a decision analysis model from a societal perspective to evaluate the costs and consequences of the treatment of ophthalmic inflammatory conditions with two potent topical steroids: prednisolone and rimexolone. Data for the model are based on information from clinical trials, national data-bases, published literature, and responses by ophthalmologists to a questionnaire on treatment patterns for elevated IOP. Three steroid-responsive conditions are examined separately with the model: uveitis; postoperative inflammation following cataract surgery; and other ophthalmic inflammatory conditions (blepharitis, episcleritis, postoperative refractive surgery, and corneal transplant). The model evaluates patients with acute conditions versus those with chronic conditions and those with mild to moderate elevation of IOP versus those with severe elevation of IOP. Although the unit cost of rimexolone is higher than that of prednisolone, use of rimexolone leads to cost savings because the incidence of elevated IOP is decreased. If rimexolone is used instead of prednisolone for the treatment of ophthalmic inflammatory conditions, the estimated cost saved (at 1995 AWP prices) is approximately $10 million across the entire US population. The savings across the health maintenance organization population on an annualized basis is approximately $3.9 million. Even if rimexolone were priced higher than current market charges (at 130% to 150% of the AWP of prednisolone), cost savings ranging from the $2.9 million to $720,000 would accrue with use of rimexolone compared with prednisolone. However if, rimexolone were priced at 160% of the AWP of prednisolone, its use would incur an additional cost of $300,000. The primary medical resource utilized in treating elevated IOP in ophthalmic inflammatory conditions is physician visits. Medications are responsible for only one-fifth to one-third of the total cost of treating elevated IOP. This analysis indicates that rimexolone is associated with decreased medical resource utilization and cost savings to the entire healthcare system. (+info)
(7/3147) Retrospective analysis of risk factors for late presentation of chronic glaucoma.
BACKGROUND: Why some individuals present to the ophthalmologist in the early stages of chronic glaucoma but others present with very advanced visual field loss is a question which has received little attention. This study is an attempt to identify some basic characteristics of people who present with late glaucoma. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study by medical record review was employed. 100 cases and 100 controls were identified from the notes of patients presenting to Moorfields Eye Hospital glaucoma service between July 1993 and July 1995. Cases were defined as new patients presenting with absolute field loss within five degrees of fixation and a cup to disc ratio of greater than 0.8 in one or both eyes. Controls were new patients with no absolute field loss within 20 degrees in either eye, but otherwise typical glaucomatous field loss and a cup to disc ratio of greater than 0.5 or a difference of 0.2 or more between the discs. RESULTS: The ethnic origin, sex, referral source, presenting IOP, and age of the subjects studied were independently associated with late presentation. An African Caribbean patient is estimated to be four and a half times more likely to attend with advanced field loss than a white patient of similar age, sex, IOP, and referral source (adj OR: 4.55, 95% CI [1.57, 13.18]). A female patient is estimated to be one third (0.34, [0.15, 0.74]) as likely to attend late than a male patient of the similar age, IOP, ethnic origin, and referral source. A patient referred via any source other than an optometrist with the correct diagnosis is estimated to be greater than four times (4.32 [1.89, 9.88]) more likely to be a late attender than a patient of the same sex, ethnicity, and similar age but referred with a diagnosis of glaucoma. There was a trend of increasing odds of late presentation with increasing age (adj OR per 10 years, baseline 40-49 years 1.68 [1.22, 2.20]). A patient whose presenting IOP is 21-25 mm Hg is estimated to be a quarter (0.24, [0.09, 0.64]) as likely to attend with advanced field loss than a patient of the same ethnic origin, sex, age, referral source, but with presenting IOP of greater than 31 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: These data strongly suggest that certain subgroups of patients with glaucoma are likely to be at greater risk of presenting with advanced and irremediable field loss. (+info)
(8/3147) Immediate intraocular pressure response to selective laser trabeculoplasty.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Selective laser trabeculoplasty targets the pigmented trabecular meshwork cells without damage to the trabecular meshwork architecture in vitro. A study was conducted in vivo of eight eyes with uncontrolled open angle glaucoma to ascertain the immediate intraocular response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. METHODS: The trabecular meshwork of each eye was treated 360 degrees with a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Intraocular pressure was measured 1, 2, 24 hours and 1, 4, 6 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: The average preoperative intraocular pressure was 26.6 (SD 7) mm Hg (range 18-37). Two hours and 6 weeks respectively after selective trabeculoplasty intraocular pressure was reduced in all the eyes treated with an average fall of 10.6 (5.2) mm Hg or 39.9%. A pressure spike of 10 mm Hg verified in one eye 1 hour after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Selective laser trabeculoplasty decreased intraocular pressure by an amount similar to that achieved with standard trabeculoplasty. Additional study is needed to determine whether the beneficial effect is sustained over a longer period of follow up. (+info)