Forty-two children with eczema were studied for exercise-induced asthma (EIA), skin sensitivity to prick testing, blood eosinophil count, and immunoglobulins. 29 had a fall in peak expiratory flow rate after exercise greater than 20% and of these, 23 had symptoms of wheezing. 13 of the eczematous children showed a fall of less than 20%. The children with EIA showed greater cutaneous sensitivity (p less than 0.001) and a higher total serum IgE (p less than 0.025). 3 of the group with a fall of less than 20% had allergic rhinitis with skin sensitivity to grass pollen. The remaining 10 had no clinical evidence of allergic disease, other than eczema and skin sensitivity, and total IgE fell within the normal range. It is suggested that in a proportion of chilren with eczema there is little evidence of reaginic allergy. (+info)
(2/215) Quantification of the dose of inhaled flour: relation with nonspecific bronchial and immunological reactivities.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific bronchial reactivity and respective nonspecific bronchial and immunological reactivities. Twenty-one patients underwent bronchial challenges with lactose and flour. The aerosol of particles was generated by a computer-controlled aerosolizer. Specific bronchial challenge results were expressed as the provocative dose of flour (PDf) that caused a 20% or 15% decrease in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). For each subject, the decrease in FEV1 observed during the challenge with flour was compared with the calculated lower limit of the 99.7% confidence interval for the lactose challenge. The subjects also underwent a nonspecific challenge with methacholine and a measurement of the specific immunoglobulin E against wheat. The inhalation of lactose did not significantly affect FEV1. Nine subjects had high reactivity to wheat flour with a PDf20 <400 microg. Five subjects had intermediate reactivity: FEV1 fell by <20% but by significantly more than that in the test with lactose. For 7 subjects, there was no significant change in FEVI for inhaled doses of flour over 1390 microg. The results for specific bronchial challenge were significantly correlated with those for the methacholine test (p<0.02). Positive skin tests and specific immunoglobulin E against wheat were observed more frequently in the high reactivity group. Specific bronchial challenge can be performed safely to establish precise dose-response curves. The provocative dose of flour causing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second is useful for evaluating the degree of specific reactivity but is not suitable in cases of intermediate reactivity in which comparison with the lactose test is necessary. Specific reactivity is probably a function of immunological and nonspecific bronchial reactivities. (+info)
(3/215) Allergy to laboratory animals in children of parents occupationally exposed to mice, rats and hamsters.
Sensitization to laboratory animals (LA) has a high prevalence among laboratory workers. It is unknown whether transportation of LA allergens can be a risk factor for sensitization of subjects outside the laboratory environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to LA among children whose parents were and were not occupationally exposed to LA. The first group consisted of 50 children (age 12.3+/-4.3 yrs) whose parents were occupationally exposed to mice, rats and hamsters. The second group consisted of 40 children (age (mean+/-SD) 10.8+/-3.0 yrs) whose parents were not occupationally exposed to LA. Children having LA at home were eliminated from the study. All children responded to a questionnaire, underwent spirometry and were also tested with skin prick tests with the use of common allergens and prick tests with hair extracts from mouse, hamster and rat. Total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels and the presence of specific IgE against LA were also estimated. Children of parents occupationally exposed to LA presented significantly more positive skin prick tests against allergens from the hair of laboratory animals compared to children of nonexposed parents. Five children from the first group were also found to have specific IgE against LA, with three of these five children complaining of rhinitis and cough while visiting their parents' workplace. It is concluded that the observed increased sensitization to laboratory animals among children of occupationally exposed parents could be the result of poor hygienic conditions at their parents' workplace. Hence, parents' job seems to be an additional risk factor of sensitization and should be taken into consideration when recording an allergic history. (+info)
(4/215) Isolation of mycobacteria from dairy creamery effluent sludge.
Sixty three samples of dairy creamery effluent were examined for the presence of mycobacteria. Thirty two strains were isolated from 27 samples. These were classified as follows: M. fortuitum (13), M. peregrinum (6), M. gordonae(5), M. marianum (scrofulaceum) (4), unidentified (4). Ten strains, representative of the groups isolated, were tested for their effect on experimental animals. None were pathogenic for guinea pigs or mice but a number produced a minimal amount of skin sensitization in guinea pigs to avian and mammalian tuberculin. (+info)
(5/215) Alternate-day prednisone therapy and human lymphocyte subpopulations.
The mechanisms and kinetics of the immunosuppressive effects of alternate-day prednisone were investigated in a group of patients with a variety of inflammatory diseases receiving a range of alternate-day prednisone doses from 5 to 120 mg. Total circulating lymphocyte and monocyte counts, as well as proportions of lymphocyte subpopulations defined both by surface markers and by in vitro functional capacities, were studied. At 8 a. m. of the day on prednisone, just before drug administration, lymphocyte and monocyte counts, proportions of lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as in vitro lymphocyte blastogenic responses to various mitogenic and antigenic stimuli were normal. 4 h after the administration of prednisone, there was a profound lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia, with a differential depletion of thymus-derived lymphocytes as well as various functionally defined lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte kinetic studies using a radioactive chromium-labeled autologous lymphocytes showed that the lymphocytopenia was due predominantly to a transient depletion of the recirculating portion of the intravascular lymphocytepool. All these parameters returned to normal by 8 a.m. of the following day (off prednisone) and remained normal throughout the day. This very transient lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia after prednisone, with normal cell numbers, proportions, and functions throughout the remainder of the 2-day cycle, was associated with suppression of disease activity, yet did not affect cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity in these patients nor increase the likelihood of infectious complications. This drug-associated cyclic and transient monocytopenia and selective lymphocytopenia is best explained by a redistribution of recirculating lymphocytes to other body compartments, particularly the bone marrow. (+info)
(6/215) Comparison of response to immunotherapy by intradermal skin test and antigen-specific IgE in canine atopy.
The intradermal skin test (IDST) and serologic allergy test (SAT) has been developed for confirming a diagnosis of canine atopy and determining allergens for immunotherapy. To determine the prevalence of causative allergens for canine atopic dermatitis in Japan, IDST and SAT were performed with the CMG Immunodot strips on 95 atopic dogs using 9 allergens. In addition, we compared agreement rate, sensitivity and specificity between them (using IDST as the standard). The allergen most commonly positive in both tests was house dust mites (IDST: 69.5%, SAT: 48.4%). Moreover, Japanese cedar, mugwort and grass mix were detected as attendant causative allergens. Agreement rates between the two tests ranged from 67.4% to 96.8%; the overall mean agreement rate were 81%. SAT was shown to have sensitivity to IDST ranging from 16.7 to 68.2%. The specificities were very high for all allergens, on the order of 94.9-100% (median=98.7%). Finally, the efficacy of immunotherapy was evaluated on 27 atopic dogs based on IDST (15 dogs) and SAT (12 dogs) results. Overall, 60% (9/15) of the IDST group and 66.8% (8/12) of the SAT group experienced a 50% to 100% reduction in their symptomatology. No significant differences were found in response to immunotherapy during the follow-up period between allergen selection methods. These results indicate the value of serologic tests as an aid to identifying an allergen solution for immunotherapy. (+info)
(7/215) In vivo and in vitro tests showing sensitization to Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen in atopic dogs.
Using both in vivo and in vitro tests, dogs with atopic dermatitis were examined for sensitization with Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica, CJ) pollen allergen. Ten dogs with clinical manifestation of atopic dermatitis were shown to be sensitized to CJ pollen based on the results of intradermal skin test and serum antigen-specific IgE test. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation test showed blastogenic response after stimulation with crude antigen of CJ pollen in all of the 5 cases examined. The peripheral leukocytes showed increased histamine release after stimulation with crude antigen of CJ pollen in 2 cases examined. These data indicate that a proportion of dogs with atopic dermatitis is sensitized to CJ pollen in a cell-mediated manner and show immediate phase reaction of type I hypersensitivity. (+info)
(8/215) Experimental murine leprosy: induction of immunity and immune paralysis to Mycobacterium lepraemurium in C57BL mice.
Two series of reinfection experiments were carried out using C57BL mice. In the first series, the mice were inoculated with Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) in one hind footpad and reinoculated in the contralateral footpad, two or four weeks later. Compared with normal mice of the same strain, the mice reinoculated after four weeks showed an increased local reaction to the bacilli and the bacilli did not multiply at the injection site. The responses of mice reinoculated after two weeks were intermediate to those of the other two groups. In the second series, a systemic infection was established by intraperitoneal innoculation of either a large or small dose of MLM. Twenty-two weeks later the mice were reinoculated in one of the hind footpads. Upon reinoculation, mice receiving the small intraperitoneal dose reacted more strongly than normal mice to MLM, whereas mice receiving the large dose were unable to mount any local reaction to the mycobacterium. The experiments have shown that the local reaction which develops in the C57BL strain of mice approximately four weeks after subcutaneous injection of MLM is accompanied by the onset of systemic immunity. Such systemic immunity lasted for more than 20 weeks after intraperitoneal injection of a small dose of bacilli, but was completely abolished during the course of a heavy systemic MLM infection. (+info)