Giant cervical epidural veins after lumbar puncture in a case of intracranial hypotension.
A 29-year-old woman presented with dilated epidural veins and incapacitating headache after undergoing a lumbar puncture. Two months later, the results of follow-up MR imaging were normal. These findings suggest that temporary dilation of the epidural vein may occur in association with post-lumbar puncture intracranial hypotension syndrome. In these cases, it seems useful to confirm whether the patient has recently undergone a lumbar puncture. (+info)
Intracranial hypotension due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage detected by radioisotope cisternography.
Seven patients, six females and one male aged 26 to 39 years old, presented with headache in the upright posture, which was completely relieved in the recumbent posture. Radioisotope cisternography with technetium-99m-human serum albumin detected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage at the cervicothoracic level in six patients, and at the high cervical level in one patient. The diagnosis was intracranial hypotension due to spontaneous CSF leakage. Complete bed rest for more than 2 weeks resulted in complete resolution of the headache in all patients, and follow-up cisternography showed no leakage. Radioisotope cisternography is useful for the diagnosis of spontaneous CSF leakage, and complete bed rest for more than 2 weeks may be the best method of treatment. (+info)
A 34-year-old female presented with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) manifesting as severe postural headache and meningism. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. She developed bilateral chronic subdural hematomas 4 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. MR imaging showed descent of the midline structures of the brain. The bilateral chronic subdural hematomas were surgically drained, with no remarkable pressure. Postoperative MR imaging showed complete resolution of the pachymeningeal enhancement and relevation of the midline structures of the brain. SIH is an uncommon and probably unrecognized condition because of the usually benign course. However, this case emphasizes that SIH is not entirely benign. SIH should be considered if there is no identifiable risk for intracranial hemorrhage, particularly in young patients. Neurosurgical intervention for the treatment of the underlying cerebrospinal fluid leak may be required if SIH persists. (+info)
Cervical MR imaging in postural headache: MR signs and pathophysiological implications.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postural headache most often occurs after lumbar puncture as post-lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) or, rarely, spontaneously as spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache (SIHH). In this prospective study, we used spinal MR imaging to determine the findings that would assist in the diagnosis of PLPH and SIHH and that would further our pathophysiological understanding of postural headache. METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with postural headache: nine with SIHH and 11 with PLPH. The craniocervical junction and the cervical spine were studied using T2-weighted fast spin-echo and T1-weighted spin-echo sequences in the axial and sagittal planes. Follow-up studies were performed in 13 patients. RESULTS: Dilatation of the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus was the most constant finding, present in 17 (85%) of 20 patients with postural headache. Spinal hygromas, whose location as subdural or epidural could not be exactly determined, were present in 14 patients (70%). A focal fluid collection was detected in the retrospinal region at the C1-C2 level in six patients with SIHH and in four patients with PLPH (50%). Tonsillar descent was detected in only one patient, and subtentorial hygroma in five patients. No abnormalities were found in the volunteers. CONCLUSION: The MR signs of dilatation of the venous plexus, presence of spinal hygromas, and presence of retrospinal fluid collections can help to establish the diagnosis of intracranial hypotension. They are probably the result of decreased CSF volume, with the retrospinal fluid collections being a transudate from the venous plexus rather than frank extravasation. Resolution of these signs parallels resolution of the headache. (+info)
Clinical comparison of the Spiegelberg parenchymal transducer and ventricular fluid pressure.
The Spiegelberg brain pressure catheter is a low cost implantable intracranial pressure measuring system which has the unique ability to perform regular automatic zeroing. A new version of the catheter has become available with a subdural bolt fixation to allow insertion of the device into the brain parenchyma. The accuracy of this system has been evaluated in comparison with a ventricular fluid pressure method in a series of patients to determine its accuracy and utility in the clinical environment. Hourly readings from the Spiegelberg system have been compared with those obtained using a standard pressure transducer connected to an external ventricular drain. Measurements continued while there was a clinical need for CSF drainage. Eleven patients were recruited to the study and data were recorded for periods ranging from 40 to 111 hours. A good agreement between the two systems was obtained. In 10 cases the mean difference was less than +/-1.5 mm Hg and the dynamic changes in value were contemporaneous. In one case an intracerebral haemorrhage developed around the tips of the Spiegelberg catheter and significant differences occurred between the two methods of measurement. In conclusion, the Spiegelberg parenchymal transducer provides an accurate measurement of intracranial pressure when compared with ventricular pressure. The transducer was found to be robust in the clinical environment and very popular with the nursing staff. Further studies may determine whether the complication rate of this system is comparable with other available devices. (+info)
Symptomatic spinal extramedullary mass lesion secondary to chronic overdrainage of ventricular fluid--case report.
A 69-year-old man presented with progressive nuchal pain and spastic gait 2 years after undergoing ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for a pineal astrocytoma with obstructive hydrocephalus. The neurological manifestations were compatible with radiculomyelopathy caused by an upper cervical lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhanced extramedullary mass lesion tightly constricting the upper cervical spinal cord. The pressure of the shunt system was 150 mmH2O, and lumbar puncture revealed normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure of 170 mmH2O. After removal of the shunt system, the clinical symptoms and neuroradiological findings markedly improved. This symptomatic spinal mass lesion was thought to be formed secondary to chronic depletion of ventricular CSF through the VP shunt. (+info)
Intracranial hypotension as a cause of radiculopathy from cervical epidural venous engorgement: case report.
We describe the case of a 40-year-old man with spontaneous intracranial hypotension who presented with cervical radiculopathy associated with epidural venous engorgement. Epidural venous engorgement can occur secondary to intracranial hypotension and manifests intracranially as pachymeningeal venous engorgement. In the cervical spine, two cases of epidural venous engorgement due to intracranial hypotension have been reported in the literature, and neither patient presented with symptoms related to nerve compression. Epidural venous engorgement should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an enhancing epidural mass in the cervical spine. Diagnostic clues include sparing of the anterior midline and posterior aspects of the epidural space and, if present, pulsation artifact. (+info)
Quantitative analysis of continuous intracranial pressure recordings in symptomatic patients with extracranial shunts.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the outcome of management of possible shunt related symptoms using intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and to identify potential methodological limitations with the current strategies of ICP assessment. METHODS: The distribution of persistent symptoms related to extracranial shunt treatment was compared before and after management of shunt failure in 69 consecutive hydrocephalic cases. Management was heavily based on ICP monitoring (calculation of mean ICP and visual determination of plateau waves). After the end of patient management, all ICP curves were re-evaluated using a quantitative method and software (Sensometrics pressure analyser). The ICP curves were presented as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg) or depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg) of different durations (0.5, 1, or 5 minutes). The numbers of ICP elevations/depressions standardised to 10 hours recording time were calculated to allow comparisons of ICP between individuals. RESULTS: After ICP monitoring and management of the putative shunt related symptoms, the symptoms remained unchanged in as many as 58% of the cases, with the highest percentages in those patients with ICP considered normal or too low at the time of ICP monitoring. The quantitative analysis revealed a high frequency of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg lasting 0.5 to 1 minute) and ICP depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg lasting 0.5, 1, or 5 minutes), particularly in patients with ICP considered normal. CONCLUSIONS: The value of continuous ICP monitoring with ICP analysis using current criteria appears doubtful in the management of possible shunt related symptoms. This may reflect limitations in the strategies of ICP analysis. Calculation of the exact numbers of ICP elevations and depressions may provide a more accurate description of the ICP profile. (+info)