Introduction of appendiceal CT: impact on negative appendectomy and appendiceal perforation rates.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of appendiceal computed tomography (CT) availability on negative appendectomy and appendiceal perforation rates. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Appendiceal CT is 98% accurate. However, its impact on negative appendectomy and appendiceal perforation rates has not been reported. METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 493 consecutive patients who underwent appendectomy between 1992 and 1995, 209 consecutive patients who underwent appendectomy in 1997 (59% of whom had appendiceal CT), and 206 patients who underwent appendiceal CT in 1997 without subsequent appendectomy. RESULTS: Before appendiceal CT, 98/493 patients (20%) taken to surgery had a normal appendix. After CT availability, 15/209 patients (7%) taken to surgery had a normal appendix; 7 patients did not have CT, 5 patients had surgery despite a negative CT, and 3 patients had a false-positive CT. Negative appendectomy rates were lowered overall (20% to 7%), in men (11% to 5%), in women (35% to 11%), in boys (10% to 5%), and in girls (18% to 12%). Appendiceal perforation rates dropped from 22% to 14% after CT availability. CT excluded appendicitis in 206 patients in 1997 who avoided appendectomy and identified alternative diagnoses in 105 of these patients (51%). CONCLUSION: The availability of appendiceal CT coincided with a drop in the negative appendectomy rate from 20% to 7% in all patients, and to only 3% in patients with a positive CT. Perforation rates decreased from 22% to 14%. Appendiceal CT can be advocated in nearly all female and many male patients. (+info)
Spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in patients with lymphoma receiving chemotherapy and steroids. Report of three cases.
Spontaneous gastrointestinal perforations in three patients with lymphoma were considered to be treatment-related conditions. All three were diagnosed as having malignant lymphoma by histological examination, and treated with chemotherapy and steroids. Four to 14 days after the start of chemotherapy, they complained of abdominal pain and plain roentgenograms revealed pneumoperitoneum. The interval between the onset of peritonitis and operation was almost 24 h. Emergency operations were carried out; one patient with a jejunal perforation underwent resection of the jejunum, another with a gastric perforation received a simple closure with omental patch, and the third with a gastric perforation underwent gastrectomy. Two patients recovered from the surgery, while the gastrectomy patient died due to sepsis. The favorable outcome of the surgical intervention is attributed to early diagnosis, prompt exploration, and selective operative procedures. We recommended a simple closure with omental patch for gastroduodenal perforation. Resection and primary anastomosis are possible only in the small bowel. (+info)
Is perforation of the appendix a risk factor for tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy? An appraisal of the evidence.
OBJECTIVE: To critically assess the evidence that appendiceal perforation is a risk factor for subsequent tubal infertility or ectopic pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: Epidemiologic studies investigating the relationship between appendectomy and infertility or ectopic pregnancy were identified by searching the MEDLINE database from 1966 to 1997. Appropriate citations were also extracted from a manual search of the bibliographies of selected papers. STUDY SELECTION: Twenty-three articles were retrieved. Only 4 presented original data including comparisons to a nonexposed control group and they form the basis for this study. DATA EXTRACTION: Because the raw data or specific techniques of data analysis were not always explicitly described, indices of risk for exposure were extracted from the data as presented and were analysed without attempting to convert them to a common measure. DATA SYNTHESIS: Articles were assessed according to the criteria of the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group for evaluating articles on harm. Review of the literature yielded estimates of the risk of adverse fertility outcomes ranging from 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.5) for ectopic pregnancy after an appendectomy to 4.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 14.9) for tubal infertility from perforation of the appendix. Recall bias, and poor adjustment for confounding variables in some reports, weakened the validity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The methodologic weaknesses of the studies do not permit acceptance of increased risk of tubal pregnancy or infertility as a consequence of perforation of the appendix, so a causal relationship cannot be supported by the data currently available. Only a well-designed case-control study with unbiased ascertainment of exposure and adjustment for confounding variables will provide a definitive answer. (+info)
Day-care laparoscopic appendectomies.
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the safety of laparoscopic appendectomy in a day-care setting and to compare patients selected for laparoscopic versus open appendectomy. DESIGN: A retrospective, nonrandomized study. SETTING: A community hospital in a small town in British Columbia. PATIENTS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. INTERVENTIONS: Each patient underwent laparoscopic or open appendectomy as selected by the operating surgeon. OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of operation and of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The average operating time was 32 minutes for open appendectomy and 36 minutes for laparoscopic appendectomy. Two (4%) of the 52 patients who had a laparoscopic appendectomy had significant complications; 1 of them required reoperation for intra-abdominal abscess. Thirty-nine (75%) of the laparoscopic appendectomies were done as day-care procedures. The average length of stay for the remaining patients was 2.1 days. The overall complication rate for patients who underwent open appendectomy was 20%. The average length of stay for these patients was 3.2 days; no patient was discharged within 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic appendectomy can be safely performed as a day-care procedure, even for selected patients with gangrenous or perforated appendices. Patients typically selected for open appendectomy include children and those with more advanced infection. (+info)
Multiple roles for IL-12 in a model of acute septic peritonitis.
The present study addressed the role of IL-12 in a murine model of septic peritonitis, induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Although CLP surgery induced IL-12 production at 6 and 24 h after surgery, IL-12 immunoneutralization was clearly deleterious in this model: 54% of CLP mice receiving preimmune serum survived, whereas mice administered IL-12 antisera prior to CLP experienced a 25% survival rate. IL-12 immunoneutralization not only led to increased mortality, but also appeared to promote a shift away from IL-12 and IFN-gamma, in favor of IL-10. This cytokine shift corresponded to changes in bacterial load, as CLP mice receiving IL-12 antiserum yielded more CFUs from the peritoneal cavity at 24 h after CLP. To address the role of bacterial infection in IL-12 antiserum-induced mortality following CLP, antibiotics were administered for 4 days after surgery. Despite regular antibiotic administration, IL-12 immunoneutralization still reduced survival in CLP mice. Furthermore, histology of the ceca revealed that mice administered IL-12 antisera failed to show typical organization of the damaged cecum wall. Accordingly, Gram staining revealed bacteria within peritoneal fluids from these mice, while peritoneal fluids from CLP mice that received preimmune serum and antibiotics were free of bacteria. Altogether, these data suggested multiple important roles for IL-12 in the evolution of murine septic peritonitis. (+info)
Selective in vivo inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of sepsis.
Elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible NO synthase (type II, iNOS) may contribute to the vascular hyporesponsiveness and hemodynamic alterations associated with sepsis. Selective inhibition of this isoenzyme is a possible therapeutic intervention to correct these pathophysiological alterations. Aminoguanidine has been shown to be a selective iNOS inhibitor and to correct the endotoxin-mediated vascular hypocontractility in vitro. However, to date aminoguanidine has not been shown to selectively block iNOS activity in vivo. The in vivo effects of aminoguanidine were assessed in the cecal ligation and perforation model of sepsis in rats. Aminoguanidine (1.75-175 mg/kg) was administered to septic and sham-operated rats for 3 h before euthanasia and harvest of tissues. NOS activities were determined in the thoracic aorta and lung from these animals. Aminoguanidine (17.5 mg/kg) did not alter the mean arterial pressure; however, it did inhibit induced iNOS (but not constitutive NOS) activity in the lung and thoracic aorta from septic animals. Only the higher dose of aminoguanidine (175 mg/kg) was able to increase the mean arterial pressure in septic and sham-operated animals. Thus selective inhibition of iNOS in vivo with aminoguanidine is possible, but our data suggest that other mechanisms, in addition to iNOS induction, are responsible for the loss of vascular tone characteristic of sepsis. (+info)
Influence of sex on clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever.
Clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever were correlated with sex through a retrospective case note review of 102 hospitalized culture-positive patients in Durban, South Africa. Intestinal perforation (P = 0.04), occult blood losses in stools (P = 0.04), and a mild reticulocytosis in the absence of hemolysis (P = 0.02) occurred more frequently in males than in females. A single pretreatment Widal O antibody titer > or = 1:640 was also a statistically significant occurrence in males (P = 0. 006). Female patients were significantly more severely ill (P = 0.0004) on admission and had chest signs consistent with bronchopneumonia (P = 0.04), transverse myelitis (P = 0.04), abnormal liver function test results (P = 0.0003), and abnormal findings in urinalyses (P = 0.02). Typhoid hepatitis (P = 0.04) and glomerulonephritis (P = 0.02) were present significantly more frequently in females. Whether these differences were due to differences in host's immune response to acute infection need to be determined in a prospective study. (+info)
Multiple spontaneous small bowel perforations due to systemic cholesterol atheromatous embolism.
A-65-year-old man was admitted for coronary and peripheral angiography to evaluate angina pectoris and peripheral vascular disease. Following angiography, he suffered from blue toes, livedo reticularis and progressive renal failure. The patient's condition continued to deteriorate, including the development of malnutrition. Four months later he suddenly developed panperitonitis, went into shock and died. The autopsy verified multiple perforations of the small bowel with disseminated cholesterol atheromatous embolism. The other organs including kidney were also invaded by atheroembolism. This was a rare case of multiple spontaneous perforations of small bowel due to systemic cholesterol atheromatous embolism. (+info)