Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics. (+info)
Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells.
In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed. (+info)
C5a receptor and interleukin-6 are expressed in tissue macrophages and stimulated keratinocytes but not in pulmonary and intestinal epithelial cells.
The anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth component of the human complement system (C5a) mediates its effects by binding to a single high-affinity receptor (C5aR/CD88), the expression of which has been traditionally thought to be restricted to granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (Mphi), and cell lines of myeloid origin. Recent immunohistochemical data suggested that human bronchial and alveolar cells express C5aR as well. To reexamine the tissue distribution of human C5aR expression, transcription of the C5aR gene was investigated in normal and pathologically affected human lung (bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis), large intestine (acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease), and skin (pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus) using in situ hybridization. In contrast to previous evidence, C5aR mRNA could not be detected in pulmonary or intestinal epithelial cells, whereas keratinocytes in inflamed but not in normal skin revealed detectable levels of C5aR transcripts. Additionally, it could be documented that only migrating Mphi express C5aR mRNA, whereas sessile Mphi in normal tissues and epithelioid/multinucleated Mphi found in granulomatous lesions do not. Because C5a has been demonstrated to upregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human monocytes, we also studied IL-6 gene transcription in parallel to the C5aR. IL-6 mRNA was detectable in many tissue Mphi. Surprisingly, a tight co-expression of C5aR and IL-6 mRNA was observed in keratinocytes from lesions of pyogenic granuloma and lichen planus. These results point to an as yet unknown role for C5a in the pathogenesis of skin disorders beyond its well-defined function as a chemoattractant and activator of leukocytes. (+info)
Intestinal reperfusion injury is mediated by IgM and complement.
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on complement. This study examines the role of the alternative and classic pathways of complement and IgM in a murine model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Wild-type animals, mice deficient in complement factor 4 (C4), C3, or Ig, or wild-type mice treated with soluble complement receptor 1 were subjected to 40 min of jejunal ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. Compared with wild types, knockout and treated mice had significantly reduced intestinal injury, indicated by lowered permeability to radiolabeled albumin. When animals deficient in Ig were reconstituted with IgM, the degree of injury was restored to wild-type levels. Immunohistological staining of intestine for C3 and IgM showed colocalization in the mucosa of wild-type controls and minimal staining for both in the intestine of Ig-deficient and C4-deficient mice. We conclude that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on the classic complement pathway and IgM. (+info)
Experimental enteropathy in athymic and euthymic rats: synergistic role of lipopolysaccharide and indomethacin.
The aim of this study was to investigate the immunologic and microbiological bases of indomethacin enteropathy. Athymic nude and euthymic specific pathogen-free (SPF) rats were reared under conventional or SPF conditions. In each group, indomethacin was given intrarectally for 2 days. Indomethacin enteropathy was evaluated using a previously described ulcer index and tissue myeloperoxidase activity. Both euthymic and athymic nude rats developed intestinal ulcers to the same degree under conventional conditions but no or minimal ulcer under SPF conditions. Pretreatment of conventional rats with intragastric kanamycin sulfate, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, attenuated indomethacin enteropathy in a dose-dependent fashion. Interestingly, when lipopolysaccharide was injected intraperitoneally in kanamycin-pretreated rats, it fully restored enteropathy in these rats in a dose-dependent manner. We confirmed that kanamycin decreased the number of gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin concentration of the small intestine in a dose-dependent fashion. These results indicate that indomethacin enteropathy is bacteria dependent and does not require a T cell function. Synergy between indomethacin and bacterial lipopolysaccharide may play a major role in this enteropathy. (+info)
Evidence of T cell receptor beta-chain patterns in inflammatory and noninflammatory bowel disease states.
T cell activation, as defined by expression of relevant cell surface molecules, such as the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25), is increased in many chronic relapsing diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These T cells are generally activated through contact of their clonotypic T cell receptor (TCR) with a peptide antigen presented by a major histocompatibility complex molecule. One of the putative antigenic contact sites for the TCR is the third complementarity determining region (CDR3) of the TCR beta-chain variable region (TCRBV). Therefore, analysis of the TCRBV CDR3 provides insight into the diversity of antigens encountered by a given T cell population. This study evaluated the TCRBV CDR3 usage of the activated intestinal lymphocytes from human subjects with IBD, diverticulitis (inflammatory control), and a normal tissue control. Public patterns, as demonstrated by shared TCRBV CDR3 amino acid sequences of activated intestinal T cell subpopulations, were observed. In particular, a public pattern of TCRBV22, a conserved valine in the fifth position, and use of TCRBJ2S1 or TCRBJ2S5 was present in three of four Crohn's disease subjects while not present in the ulcerative colitis subjects. However, the private patterns of TCRBV CDR3 region amino acid sequences were far more striking and easily demonstrated in all individuals studied, including a normal noninflammatory control. Thus we conclude that selective antigenic pressures are prevalent among an individual's activated intestinal lymphocytes. (+info)
Urinary outputs of oxalate, calcium, and magnesium in children with intestinal disorders. Potential cause of renal calculi.
24-hour urinary outputs of oxalate, calcium, and magnesium have been determined in a total of 62 children aged 3 months to 17 years who fell into the following groups: (i) 16 normal controls, (ii) 3 with primary hyperoxaluria, (iii) 9 with small and/or large intestinal resections, (iv) 9 with untreated coeliac disease, (v) 5 with pancreatic dysfunction, and (vi) a miscellaneous group of 20 children with a variety of intestinal disorders. Taken as a whole, 58% of patients with intestinal disorders had hyperoxaluria, and of these 7% had urinary outputs of oxalate which fell within the range seen in primary hyperoxaluria. The proportion of children with hyperoxaluria in the different diagnostic groups was as follows: intestinal resections (78%), coeliac disease (67%), pancreatic dysfunction (80%), and miscellaneous (45%). 35% of the patients with hyperoxaluria had hypercalciuria, whereas magnesium excretion was normal in all subjects studied. In 2 patients treatment of the underlying condition was accompanied by a return of oxalate excretion to normal. These results indicate that hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria are common in children with a variety of intestinal disorders, and that such children may be at risk of developing renal calculi without early diagnosis and treatment. (+info)
Characterization of intestinal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and response to antiretroviral therapy.
Combination antiretroviral therapies suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood, but the effect in gastrointestinal mucosa is uncertain. The occurrence of pathogen-negative diarrhea led to speculation that local HIV infection is etiologic. Mucosal cellular reservoirs for HIV were documented by use of several techniques. Correlations were found among gastrointestinal symptoms, histopathologic findings, cytokine expression, lymphoid apoptosis, and HIV RNA and protein expression in rectal mucosa. Disproportionate depletion of mucosal CD4+ lymphocytes also was found. The short-term effects of antiretroviral therapies were examined to test the hypothesis that these changes are directly related to mucosal HIV infection. Therapy was associated with decreased symptoms, with comparable drops in peripheral blood and mucosal HIV RNA contents, and by increases in blood and mucosal CD4+ lymphocyte contents. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells also declined during therapy. These results suggest that HIV plays a direct role in producing intestinal dysfunction. (+info)