(1/1481) Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions.
CONTEXT: Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. RESULTS: Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. CONCLUSIONS: The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects. (+info)
(2/1481) Psychiatric comorbidity measures as predictors of retention in drug abuse treatment programs.
OBJECTIVE: To examine lifetime and current psychiatric comorbidity measures as predictors of drug abuse treatment retention, and to test the generalizability of results across treatment agencies in diverse settings and with varying practices. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The national Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS), a longitudinal study of clients from 96 treatment agencies in 11 U.S. cities. STUDY DESIGN: The design is naturalistic and uses longitudinal analysis of treatment retention in long-term residential, outpatient drug-free, and outpatient methadone treatment modalities; client background (including psychiatric comorbidity) and program service provision are predictors. Clinical thresholds for adequate treatment retention were 90 days for long-term residential and outpatient drug-free, and 360 days for outpatient methadone. Psychiatric indicators included lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses of depression/anxiety and antisocial personality, and dimensional measures of current symptoms for depression and hostility. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data include structured interviews with clients, a survey of treatment program administrators, and program discharge records. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dimensional measures of current psychiatric symptoms emerged as better predictors than lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses. In addition, the predictive association of hostility with retention varied significantly across treatment agencies, both in the long-term residential and outpatient drug-free modalities. Other notable findings were that on-site mental health services in long-term residential programs were associated with better retention for clients with symptoms of hostility. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment issues and stability of results across programs are important considerations for treatment research and practice. (+info)
(3/1481) Decisional balance regarding substance use among persons with schizophrenia.
State-of-the-science treatment of substance abuse relies on decisional balance activities (weighing pros and cons of continued substance use) to enhance motivation for change. Few data are available regarding the feasibility of these activities among persons dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To address this lacuna in the literature, we completed focus groups with 21 participants, all of whom had a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis and lifetime substance abuse or dependence. These key informants discussed the pros and cons of substance use as well as the pros and cons of quitting in response to a structured group interview. Our qualitative data indicate that persons living with schizophrenia can generate rich and diverse decisional balance information. We describe salient themes, contrast complementary perspectives (i.e., the pros of using and cons of quitting), and suggest treatment implications based on these findings. (+info)
(4/1481) Carrier testing of children for two X linked diseases in a family based setting: a retrospective long term psychosocial evaluation.
The question of whether genetic carrier testing should be performed on children has been the subject of much debate. However, one important element has been lacking from this debate. There has been practically no knowledge of how those tested in childhood have experienced carrier testing. Twenty three subjects in families affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy and 23 in families affected by haemophilia A, all of whom had been tested during childhood for carriership in the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, from 1984 to 1988, participated in our study. We investigated long term psychosocial consequences of carrier testing in childhood. A questionnaire relating to sociodemographic background and life situation was used, together with assessment of health related quality of life (HRQOL) using the RAND 36 item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND). RAND results showed that the emotional, social, and physical well being of the young female subjects was not statistically different from those of control female subjects at a similar age. We also found no statistically significant differences in means in any RAND dimension (p<0.146) between carriers, non-carriers, and a group in which carrier status was uncertain. However, two out of seven carriers reported that they were worried and three that they were slightly worried about the test result. Four out of 22 young female subjects in the uncertain group reported being worried and 11 reported being slightly worried. (+info)
(5/1481) Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies (SIAPA).
Clinical descriptions of perceptual and attentional anomalies in schizophrenia emphasize phenomena such as flooding, or inundation, by sensory stimuli. A failure of sensory "gating" mechanisms in the brain is hypothesized to account for these symptoms, and this hypothesis has led to a marked interest in their putative psychophysiological substrates. However, there are no systematic analyses of the phenomenology of these perceptual experiences, nor has the hypothesized connection between the clinical phenomena and their reported psychophysiological substrates been tested. In this investigation, a structured interview instrument was developed to measure perceptual anomalies as distinct from hallucinations and to determine their prevalence across sensory modalities in schizophrenia in 67 schizophrenia subjects and 98 normal controls. The instrument includes Likert ratings of hypersensitivity, inundation, and selective attention to external sensory stimuli. Good interrater agreement, determined from interviews, was obtained. Schizophrenia subjects had significantly higher auditory, visual, and combined scores (i.e., across all modalities) than normal controls did, indicating significantly more perceptual anomalies. For the schizophrenia group, the prevalence of auditory and visual anomalies was significantly greater than the other sensory modalities. The data indicate that the putative phenomenological correlates of sensory gating may be reliably measured and tested with the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies. (+info)
(6/1481) JADE: computerization of a structured interview for childhood psychiatric diagnosis.
JADE is a new, computerized structured interview system to design, administer, and report results of the National Institute of Health's Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (NIMH-DISC). It has been developed under the auspices of the DISC Group at the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute. The development of JADE is based on extensive experience in the use of the DISC and with several previous computerized versions. It illustrates the importance to program design of consultation with those experienced in research and clinical application of the system and of the early adoption of a mature software development strategy. (+info)
(7/1481) Cancer patients' information needs and information seeking behaviour: in depth interview study.
OBJECTIVES: To explore why cancer patients do not want or seek information about their condition beyond that volunteered by their physicians at times during their illness. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews. SETTING: Outpatient oncology clinics at a London cancer centre. PARTICIPANTS: 17 patients with cancer diagnosed in previous 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis of patients' narratives to identify key themes and categories. RESULTS: While all patients wanted basic information on diagnosis and treatment, not all wanted further information at all stages of their illness. Three overarching attitudes to their management of cancer limited patients' desire for and subsequent efforts to obtain further information: faith, hope, and charity. Faith in their doctor's medical expertise precluded the need for patients to seek further information themselves. Hope was essential for patients to carry on with life as normal and could be maintained through silence and avoiding information, especially too detailed or "unsafe" information. Charity to fellow patients, especially those seen as more needy than themselves, was expressed in the recognition that scarce resources-including information and explanations-had to be shared and meant that limited information was accepted as inevitable. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients' attitudes to cancer and their strategies for coping with their illness can constrain their wish for information and their efforts to obtain it. In developing recommendations, the government's cancer information strategy should attend to variations in patients' desires for information and the reasons for them. (+info)
(8/1481) Psychiatric morbidity, service use, and need for care in the general population: results of The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the use of primary health care, mental health care, and informal care services, as well as unmet care needs, by individuals with different psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study and were based on a representative sample (n = 7147) of the general population (aged 18-64 years). RESULTS: In a 12-month period, 33.9% of those with a psychiatric disorder used some form of care; 27.2% used primary care, and 15.3% used mental health care. Patients with mood disorders were the most likely to enlist professional care; those with alcohol- and drug-related disorders were the least likely to do so. Higher educated persons who live alone, single parents, unemployed persons, and disabled persons were more likely to use mental health care. Unmet need for professional help was reported by 16.8% (men 9.9%, women 23.9%) of those with a disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Care use varies widely by diagnostic category. The role of general medical practitioners in treating persons with psychiatric disorders is more limited than was anticipated. Patients in categories associated with extensive use of professional care are more likely to have unmet care needs. (+info)