(1/2547) Leukemia translocation protein PLZF inhibits cell growth and expression of cyclin A.
The PLZF gene was identified by its fusion with the RARalpha locus in a therapy resistant form of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) associated with the t(11;17)(q23;q21) translocation. Here we describe PLZF as a negative regulator of cell cycle progression ultimately leading to growth suppression. PLZF can bind and repress the cyclin A2 promoter while expression of cyclin A2 reverts the growth suppressed phenotype of myeloid cells expressing PLZF. In contrast RARalpha-PLZF, a fusion protein generated in t(11;17)(q23;q21)-APL activates cyclin A2 transcription and allows expression of cyclin A in anchorage-deprived NIH3T3 cells. Therefore, cyclin A2 is a candidate target gene for PLZF and inhibition of cyclin A expression may contribute to the growth suppressive properties of PLZF. Deregulation of cyclin A2 by RARalpha-PLZF may represent an oncogenic mechanism of this chimeric protein and contribute to the aggressive clinical phenotype of t(11;17)(q23;q21)-associated APL. (+info)
(2/2547) Activation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit by mitosis-specific phosphorylation.
It has been demonstrated previously that during mitosis the sites of myosin phosphorylation are switched between the inhibitory sites, Ser 1/2, and the activation sites, Ser 19/Thr 18 (Yamakita, Y., S. Yamashiro, and F. Matsumura. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 124:129- 137; Satterwhite, L.L., M.J. Lohka, K.L. Wilson, T.Y. Scherson, L.J. Cisek, J.L. Corden, and T.D. Pollard. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:595-605), suggesting a regulatory role of myosin phosphorylation in cell division. To explore the function of myosin phosphatase in cell division, the possibility that myosin phosphatase activity may be altered during cell division was examined. We have found that the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT) undergoes mitosis-specific phosphorylation and that the phosphorylation is reversed during cytokinesis. MYPT phosphorylated either in vivo or in vitro in the mitosis-specific way showed higher binding to myosin II (two- to threefold) compared to MYPT from cells in interphase. Furthermore, the activity of myosin phosphatase was increased more than twice and it is suggested this reflected the increased affinity of myosin binding. These results indicate the presence of a unique positive regulatory mechanism for myosin phosphatase in cell division. The activation of myosin phosphatase during mitosis would enhance dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain, thereby leading to the disassembly of stress fibers during prophase. The mitosis-specific effect of phosphorylation is lost on exit from mitosis, and the resultant increase in myosin phosphorylation may act as a signal to activate cytokinesis. (+info)
(3/2547) Isolation and partial characterization of Drosophila myoblasts from primary cultures of embryonic cells.
We describe a method for preparing highly enriched cultures of Drosophila myoblasts from a heterogeneous cell population derived from gastrulating embryos. Enriched cultures are prepared by plating this heterogeneous population of cells in medium from which much of the free calcium is chelated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (EGTA). Adhesion of myoblasts to tissue culture plastic is better than that of other cell types when plated in this medium. Data concerning cell identity, timing of S phase, and fusion kinetics document the degree of enrichment for myogenic cells and illustrate their synchronous differentiation in vitro. (+info)
(4/2547) Inhibition of aberrant proliferation and induction of apoptosis in HER-2/neu oncogene transformed human mammary epithelial cells by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide.
Epithelial cells from non-cancerous mammary tissue in response to exposure to chemical carcinogens or transfection with oncogenes exhibit hyperproliferation and hyperplasia prior to the development of cancer. Aberrant proliferation may, therefore, represent a modifiable early occurring preneoplastic event that is susceptible to chemoprevention of carcinogenesis. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR), has exhibited preventive efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models, and represents a promising chemopreventive compound for clinical trials. Clinically relevant biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effects of HPR, however, are not fully understood. Experiments were performed on preneoplastic human mammary epithelial 184-B5/HER cells derived from reduction mammoplasty and initiated for tumorigenic transformation by overexpression of HER-2/neu oncogene, to examine whether HPR inhibits aberrant proliferation of these cells and to identify the possible mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of HPR. Continuous 7-day treatment with HPR produced a dose-dependent, reversible growth inhibition. Long-term (21 day) treatment of 184-B5/HER cells with HPR inhibited anchorage-dependent colony formation by approximately 80% (P < 0.01) relative to that observed in the solvent control. A 24 h treatment with cytostatic 400 nM HPR produced a 25% increase (P = 0.01) in G0/G1 phase, and a 36% decrease (P = 0.01) in S phase of the cell cycle. HPR treatment also induced a 10-fold increase (P = 0.02) in the sub-G0 (apoptotic) peak that was down-regulated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with HPR resulted in a 30% reduction of cellular immunoreactivity to tyrosine kinase, whereas immunoreactivity to p185HER remained essentially unaltered. HPR exposure resulted in time-dependent increase in cellular metabolism of the retinoid as evidenced by increased formation of the inert metabolite N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-retinamide (MPR) and progressive increase in apoptosis. Thus, HPR-induced inhibition of aberrant proliferation may be caused, in part, by its ability to inhibit HER-2/neu-mediated proliferative signal transduction, retard cell cycle progression and upregulate cellular apoptosis. (+info)
(5/2547) Staurosporine blocked normal cells at G1/S boundary.
AIM: To reveal the regulating difference of G1/S-phase transition between normal and tumor cells by using staurosporine, an unspecific kinase inhibitor. METHODS: Flow cytometry, Dot blot, kinase activity assay, and electrophoresis. RESULTS: A 18-h treatment with staurosporine (5 micrograms.L-1) blocked normal cell line 2BS cells (normal human embryonic lung fibroblast, 5-20 passages) in G1 phase, decreased their thymidine kinase (TK) mRNA level and activity, and also dephosphorylated an intracellular 107 kDa protein. Meanwhile, all these effects in 2BS cells disappeared only by washing staurosporine away. Such kind of effects did not occur in tumor cell line BGC-823 cells (human stomach cancer cell). CONCLUSION: During the period of G1/S-phase transition, the kinases involved are more sensitive to staurosporine in normal cells than in tumor cells. (+info)
(6/2547) Specific destruction of kinetochore protein CENP-C and disruption of cell division by herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein Vmw110.
Examination of cells at the early stages of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection revealed that the viral immediate-early protein Vmw110 (also known as ICP0) formed discrete punctate accumulations associated with centromeres in both mitotic and interphase cells. The RING finger domain of Vmw110 (but not the C-terminal region) was essential for its localization at centromeres, thus distinguishing the Vmw110 sequences required for centromere association from those required for its localization at other discrete nuclear structures known as ND10, promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) bodies or PODs. We have shown recently that Vmw110 can induce the proteasome-dependent loss of several cellular proteins, including a number of probable SUMO-1-conjugated isoforms of PML, and this results in the disruption of ND10. In this study, we found some striking similarities between the interactions of Vmw110 with ND10 and centromeres. Specifically, centromeric protein CENP-C was lost from centromeres during virus infection in a Vmw110- and proteasome-dependent manner, causing substantial ultrastructural changes in the kinetochore. In consequence, dividing cells either became stalled in mitosis or underwent an unusual cytokinesis resulting in daughter cells with many micronuclei. These results emphasize the importance of CENP-C for mitotic progression and suggest that Vmw110 may be interfering with biochemical mechanisms which are relevant to both centromeres and ND10. (+info)
(7/2547) NF-kappaB function in growth control: regulation of cyclin D1 expression and G0/G1-to-S-phase transition.
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, transformation, and tumor development. We provide evidence for a direct link between NF-kappaB activity and cell cycle regulation. NF-kappaB was found to stimulate transcription of cyclin D1, a key regulator of G1 checkpoint control. Two NF-kappaB binding sites in the human cyclin D1 promoter conferred activation by NF-kappaB as well as by growth factors. Both levels and kinetics of cyclin D1 expression during G1 phase were controlled by NF-kappaB. Moreover, inhibition of NF-kappaB caused a pronounced reduction of serum-induced cyclin D1-associated kinase activity and resulted in delayed phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. Furthermore, NF-kappaB promotes G1-to-S-phase transition in mouse embryonal fibroblasts and in T47D mammary carcinoma cells. Impaired cell cycle progression of T47D cells expressing an NF-kappaB superrepressor (IkappaBalphaDeltaN) could be rescued by ectopic expression of cyclin D1. Thus, NF-kappaB contributes to cell cycle progression, and one of its targets might be cyclin D1. (+info)
(8/2547) The Cdc6 protein is ubiquitinated in vivo for proteolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6 protein is necessary for the formation of pre-replicative complexes that are required for firing DNA replication at origins at the beginning of S phase. Cdc6p protein levels oscillate during the cell cycle. In a normal cell cycle the presence of this protein is restricted to G1, partly because the CDC6 gene is transcribed only during G1 and partly because the Cdc6p protein is rapidly degraded at late G1/early S phase. We report here that the Cdc6p protein is degraded in a Cdc4-dependent manner, suggesting that phosphorylated Cdc6 is specifically recognized by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis machinery. Indeed, we have found that Cdc6 is ubiquitinated in vivo and degraded by a Cdc4-dependent mechanism. Our data, together with previous observations regarding Cdc6 stability, suggest that under physiological conditions budding yeast cells degrade ubiquitinated Cdc6 every cell cycle at the beginning of S phase. (+info)