Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb. (+info)
Popliteal artery occlusion as a late complication of liquid acrylate embolization for cerebral vascular malformation.
Occlusion of arteriovenous malformations of the brain (BAVMs) by means of an endovascular approach with liquid acrylate glue is an established treatment modality. The specific hazards of this procedure are related to the central nervous system. In the case of unexpectedly rapid polymerization of the cyanoacrylate glue and adhesion of the delivering microcatheter to the BAVM, severing the catheter at the site of vascular access is considered an acceptable and safe management. We present a unique complication related to this technique that has not been described yet. Fragmentation and migration of the microcatheter, originally left in place, had caused popliteal artery occlusion, which required saphenous vein interposition, in a 25-year-old man. Suggestions for avoiding this complication are discussed. (+info)
Peripheral blood flow rates and microvascular responses to orthostatic pressure changes in claudicants before and after revascularisation.
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of arterial reconstruction for occlusive atherosclerotic disease with intermittent claudication on blood flow rate during rest and on microvascular responses to orthostatic pressure changes in the pulp skin of the first toe where arteriovenous anastomoses are numerous. MATERIAL: Eleven patients with Fontaine IIa claudication (ankle blood pressure index > 0.30) before and 7 (range: 2-11) months after intervention. METHODS: Blood flow rate was measured by the heat washout method with the toe at heart level and after passive lowering to 50 cm below this level using a Clark type electrode with thermostatically controlled cap that was fixed to the pulp of the first toe by adhesive tape. RESULTS: At heart level, blood flow rate was lower in claudicants before reconstruction as compared to a group of previously published control subjects (p = 0.0076, Wilcoxon), blood flow rate increased in claudicants from before to after intervention (p = 0.0128), and postoperative blood flow rate was like that of normals (N.S.). Before surgery, blood flow rate in claudicants increased in median with a factor of 1.79 during lowering (p < 0.0051). CONCLUSIONS: The disturbance of the microcirculatory responses to orthostatically induced pressure changes in claudicants reverted towards normal after arterial reconstruction. (+info)
Spontaneous popliteal artery dissection: a case report and review of the literature.
Spontaneous arterial dissection of a peripheral artery involving an extremity is a rare event. We report a case of atraumatic, nonaneurysmal dissection of the popliteal artery that occurred in a 62-year-old man who was admitted with progressive right lower-extremity claudication. Preoperative arteriography was suggestive of arterial dissection, and surgical treatment was undertaken before irreversible ischemia developed. Intraoperatively, a dissection of the popliteal artery was observed, and the patient underwent femoral-popliteal bypass grafting with the ipsilateral, greater saphenous vein and the popliteal artery was ligated distal to the dissection. Spontaneous dissection limited to the popliteal artery has not previously been reported in the literature. Successful management depends on consideration of the diagnosis, particularly when other, more common diseases have been excluded. (+info)
Leg symptoms, the ankle-brachial index, and walking ability in patients with peripheral arterial disease.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how functional status and walking ability are related to both severity of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and PAD-related leg symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 55 years and older diagnosed with PAD in a blood flow laboratory or general medicine practice (n = 147). Randomly selected control patients without PAD were identified in a general medicine practice (n = 67). MEASUREMENTS: Severity of PAD was measured with the ankle-brachial index (ABI). All patients were categorized according to whether they had (1) no exertional leg symptoms; (2) classic intermittent claudication; (3) exertional leg symptoms that also begin at rest (pain at rest), or (4) exertional leg symptoms other than intermittent claudication or pain at rest (atypical exertional leg symptoms). Participants completed the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). The WIQ quantifies patient-reported walking speed, walking distance, and stair-climbing ability, respectively, on a scale of 0 to 100 (100 = best). MAIN RESULTS: In multivariate analyses patients with atypical exertional leg symptoms, intermittent claudication, and pain at rest, respectively, had progressively poorer scores for walking distance, walking speed, and stair climbing. The ABI was measurably and independently associated with walking distance (regression coefficient = 2.87/0.1 ABI unit, p =.002) and walking speed (regression coefficient = 2.09/0.1 ABI unit, p =.015) scores. Among PAD patients only, pain at rest was associated independently with all WIQ scores and six SF-36 domains, while ABI was an independent predictor of WIQ distance score. CONCLUSIONS: Both PAD-related leg symptoms and ABI predict patient-perceived walking ability in PAD. (+info)
Quality of life associated with varying degrees of chronic lower limb ischaemia: comparison with a healthy sample.
OBJECTIVES: To assess quality of life in patients with varying degrees of ischaemia in comparison with controls, and to determine whether the degree of lower limb ischaemia and sense of coherence were associated with quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 168 patients, including 93 claudicants and 75 patients with critical ischaemia and 102 controls were studied. Quality of life was assessed using the Nottingham Health Profile in addition to the Sense of Coherence scale. MAIN RESULTS: Patients with lower limb ischaemia scored significantly reduced quality of life in all aspects compared to controls. Pain, physical mobility and emotional reactions were the significant independent factors when using logistic regression analysis. The grade of disease and low sense of coherence were significantly associated with low quality of life. Increasing lower limb ischaemia significantly conferred worse pain, sleeping disturbances and immobility. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the quality of life was impaired among patients with lower limb ischaemia, in all investigated respects. The degree to which quality of life was affected seems to represent an interplay between the grade of ischaemia and the patient's sense of coherence. This suggests the need for a multidimensional assessment prior to intervention. (+info)
Thermal biofeedback for claudication in diabetes: a literature review and case study.
Temperature biofeedback (TBFB) is designed to alter cutaneous temperature in treated extremities by providing information corresponding to minor temperature fluctuations in the context of therapeutic structure and reinforcement. Toe TBFB may improve vascular flow and walking tolerance in patients with peripheral vascular disease. This case study documents improved walking in a diabetes patient with lower extremity complications, and suggests TBFB might increase lower extremity temperature and blood flow volume pulse in uncomplicated diabetes. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and walking function were assessed in a 60-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and intermittent claudication, before and after five sessions of TBFB applied to the ventral surface of the great toe. Toe temperature increased during feedback phases but not during baseline phases. Improvements were seen in ankle-brachial index, walking distance, walking speed, and stair climbing. This case indicates the need for extended and controlled study of TBFB for improved vascular and ambulatory function in diabetic claudication. (+info)
Measuring serum total cholesterol: do vascular surgeons know what they are doing?
Raised serum total cholesterol (TC) is an accepted risk factor for both coronary and peripheral vascular disease and three landmark trials have shown the benefit of lowering TC using statins. Vascular surgeons tend to measure TC, but little is known about how they manage hypercholesterolaemia or whether they believe treatment will be of benefit. A questionnaire was sent to listed members of the Vascular Surgical Society of Great Britain and Ireland seeking responses to a range of questions on the measurement and management of raised TC. In all, 374 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 67%. Over 90% of respondents said they measured TC and considered a level below 5.5 mmol/l as normal. The cut-off for initiating drug therapy, referral to a dietician or to a lipid specialist varied from 5.5 to 7.5 mmol/l. Most (62%) believed that lowering TC improved coronary mortality, but fewer (26%) that it prevented worsening of claudication. Although most vascular surgeons check for raised TC, the level at which treatment begins and the form it takes varies; in many cases being at odds with recommendations. Few surgeons are convinced of the benefits of lowering TC for claudication and nearly one-fifth do not believe it improves coronary mortality. (+info)