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(1/3668) Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation.

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

(2/3668) Interaction of lipopolysaccharide with human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts favors neutrophil migration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion by the production of proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules.

Fibroblasts are important effector cells having a potential role in augmenting the inflammatory responses in various diseases. In infantile diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the mechanism of inflammatory reactions at the mucosal site remains unknown. Although the potential involvement of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cryptococcus-induced diarrhea in pigs has been suggested, the precise role of lamina propria fibroblasts in the cellular pathogenesis of intestinal infection and inflammation caused by EPEC requires elucidation. Earlier we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis and downregulation of nitric oxide in lamina propria fibroblasts. In this report, we present the profile of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the cultured and characterized human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts in relation to neutrophil migration and adhesion in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from EPEC 055:B5. Upon interaction with LPS (1-10 micrograms/ml), lamina propria fibroblasts produced a high level of proinflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), A-CAM, N-CAM and vitronectin in a time-dependent manner. LPS induced cell-associated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha as soluble form in the supernatant. Apart from ICAM, vitronectin, A-CAM, and N-CAM proteins were strongly induced in lamina propria fibroblasts by LPS. Adhesion of PBMC to LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts was ICAM-dependent. LPS-induced ICAM expression in lamina propria fibroblasts was modulated by whole blood, PBMC and neutrophils. Conditioned medium of LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts remarkably enhanced the neutrophil migration. The migration of neutrophils was inhibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. Co-culture of fibroblasts with neutrophils using polycarbonate membrane filters exhibited time-dependent migration of neutrophils. These findings indicate that the coordinate production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in lamina propria fibroblasts which do not classically belong to the immune system can influence the local inflammatory reactions at the intestinal mucosal site during bacterial infections and can influence the immune cell population residing in the lamina propria.  (+info)

(3/3668) Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse.

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is thought to be associated with T lymphocyte dysfunction often triggered by viral infections, with the production of circulating factor(s) resulting in proteinuria. In view of the conflicting evidence of T cell activation and Th1 or Th2 pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined the mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-13 from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in steroid-responsive nephrotic patients in relapse and remission. Fifty-five children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome were included in this study, together with 34 normal controls and 24 patient controls with viral infections. RNA was isolated from purified CD4+ or CD8+ cells from peripheral blood and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured semiquantitatively, and a cytokine index was derived from densitometric readings, with cyclophilin as the housekeeping gene. Both cross-sectional and paired data showed an increased CD4+ and CD8+ IL-13 mRNA expression in patients with nephrotic relapse as compared to remission, normal, and patient controls (P < 0.008). This was also associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-13 expression in phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-activated CD3+ cells (6.66+/-3.39%) from patients with nephrotic relapse compared to remission (2.59+/-1.35%) (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in CD4+ or CD8+ IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression. IL-13 is an important T cell cytokine with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions on B cells and monocytes. It is conceivable that IL-13 may act on monocytes to produce vascular permeability factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with relapse nephrotic syndrome.  (+info)

(4/3668) Enhanced capacity of a widespread strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to grow in human macrophages.

To determine whether the extent of spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the community correlated with their capacity to replicate in human macrophages, intracellular growth rates of M. tuberculosis patient isolates were measured. Strain 210 caused disease in 43 patients in central Los Angeles, 3 "small-cluster" strains caused disease in 8-23 patients, and 5 "unique" strains each caused disease in only 1 patient who was positive by sputum acid-fast smear and spent substantial amounts of time at homeless shelters that were tuberculosis transmission sites. Strain 210 isolates grew significantly more rapidly than small-cluster and unique strains in macrophages. All strains elicited production of similar amounts of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-12 and were equally susceptible to reactive nitrogen intermediates. It was concluded that the extensive spread of an M. tuberculosis strain correlated with its capacity to replicate rapidly in human macrophages, which may be a marker of virulence.  (+info)

(5/3668) Macrophages are a significant source of type 1 cytokines during mycobacterial infection.

T-helper 1 (Th1) cells are believed to be the major producer of the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in cell-mediated immunity against intracellular infection. We have investigated the ability of macrophages to release type 1 cytokines and their regulatory mechanisms using both in vivo and in vitro models of pulmonary mycobacterial infection. During pulmonary infection by live Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in wild-type mice, lung macrophages released interleukin-12 (IL-12), IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and expressed surface activation markers. However, macrophages in infected IL-12(-/-) mice released TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma and lacked surface activation makers. In freshly isolated lung macrophages from naive IL-2(-/-) mice, mycobacteria alone released TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma, whereas exogenously added IL-12 alone released a minimum of IFN-gamma. However, these macrophages released large quantities of IFN-gamma upon stimulation with both mycobacteria and IL-12. In contrast, mycobacteria and exogenous IFN-gamma released only a minimum of endogenous IFN-gamma. Endogenous IL-18 (IFN-gamma-inducing factor) played little role in IFN-gamma responses by macrophages stimulated by mycobacteria and IL-12. Our data reveal that macrophages are a significant source of type 1 cytokines during mycobacterial infection and that both IL-12 and intracellular pathogens are required for the release of IFN-gamma but not TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that macrophages regulate cell-mediated immunity by releasing not only IL-12 and TNF-alpha but also IFN-gamma and that full activation of IFN-gamma response in macrophages is tightly regulated.  (+info)

(6/3668) Regulation of TH1- and TH2-type cytokine expression and action in atopic asthmatic sensitized airway smooth muscle.

CD4(+) T helper (TH)1- and TH2-type cytokines reportedly play an important role in the pathobiology of asthma. Recent evidence suggests that proasthmatic changes in airway smooth muscle (ASM) responsiveness may be induced by the autocrine release of certain proinflammatory cytokines by the ASM itself. We examined whether TH1- and TH2-type cytokines are expressed by atopic asthmatic sensitized ASM and serve to autologously regulate the proasthmatic phenotype in the sensitized ASM. Expression of these cytokines and their receptors was examined in isolated rabbit and human ASM tissues and cultured cells passively sensitized with sera from atopic asthmatic patients or control subjects. Relative to controls, atopic sensitized ASM cells exhibited an early increased mRNA expression of the TH2-type cytokines, interleukin-5 (IL-5) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and their receptors. This was later followed by enhanced mRNA expression of the TH1-type cytokines, IL-2, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), as well as their respective receptors. In experiments on isolated ASM tissue segments (a) exogenous administration of IL-2 and IFN-gamma to atopic asthmatic serum-sensitized ASM ablated both their enhanced constrictor responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) and their attenuated relaxation responsiveness to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoproterenol, and (b) administration of IL-5 and GM-CSF to naive ASM induced significant increases in their contractility to ACh and impaired their relaxant responsiveness to isoproterenol. Collectively, these observations provide new evidence demonstrating that human ASM endogenously expresses both TH1- and TH2-type cytokines and their receptors, that these molecules are sequentially upregulated in the atopic asthmatic sensitized state, and that they act to downregulate and upregulate proasthmatic perturbations in ASM responsiveness, respectively.  (+info)

(7/3668) A fatal cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response reveals a critical role for NK cells.

The mechanism of cytokine-induced shock remains poorly understood. The combination of IL-2 and IL-12 has synergistic antitumor activity in vivo, yet has been associated with significant toxicity. We examined the effects of IL-2 plus IL-12 in a murine model and found that the daily, simultaneous administration of IL-2 and IL-12 resulted in shock and 100% mortality within 4 to 12 days depending on the strain employed. Mice treated with IL-2 plus IL-12 exhibited NK cell apoptosis, pulmonary edema, degenerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, and elevated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants. The actions of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha, IL-1, IL-1-converting enzyme, Fas, perforin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and STAT1 did not contribute to the observed toxicity, nor did B or T cells. However, toxicity and death from treatment with IL-2 plus IL-12 could be completely abrogated by elimination of NK cells. These results suggest that the fatal systemic inflammatory response induced by this cytokine treatment is critically dependent upon NK cells, but does not appear to be mediated by the known effector molecules of this cellular compartment. These data may provide insight into the pathogenesis of cytokine-induced shock in humans.  (+info)

(8/3668) Levels of IL-12 in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)--relation to Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines.

IL-12 is a cytokine that induces Th1-derived cytokines (interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2). The significance of IL-12 in human autoimmunity is no clear, and the serum levels of IL-12 in SLE are not clearly established. Therefore, we examined the levels of IL-12 in 39 patients with active SLE, with sandwich ELISA. The levels of IL-12 in patients were significantly higher than in normal subjects. Patients with high levels of IL-12 also had high levels of IFN-gamma, while their levels of IL-13 were significantly lower than in patients with normal levels of IL-12. Patients with pulmonary involvement had high levels of IL-12, and steroid therapy decreased the IL-12 level in three patients. In a retrospective study of seven patients, various changes of IL-12 and IL-13 were recognized before disease flare. Thus, in SLE patients, the level of IL-12 was increased and this increase was related to the change of Th1- or Th2-derived cytokines with some organ involvement.  (+info)