Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction for measurement of human interleukin-5 receptor alpha spliced isoforms mRNA.
BACKGROUND: Expression of human Interleukin-5 receptor alpha (hIL-5Ralpha) is controlled by alternative splicing, which generates two different transcripts encoding a membrane-anchored and a soluble form of the receptor, respectively. Although the study of the expression and regulation of hIL-5Ralpha is of crucial importance in the field of immunological processing, methods and techniques until now described lack sufficient sensitivity for detection of small differences in the expression of these isoforms. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable and sensitive real-time quantitative PCR assay to analyse the expression level of each isoform. METHODS: For the quantitative real-time PCR assay, two standard curves specific for each splice variant were constructed. PCR amplifications were performed on CDNA from peripheral blood, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis and normal nasal tissue using a common forward and two specific reverse primers, in combination with SYBR Green I as the detection format. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We have developed an accurate and reliable assay for quantification of interleukin-5 receptor alpha mRNA isoforms over a broad dynamic range of input molecules. Importantly, excess of one isoform did not influence accurate quantification of the other isoform. Quantification of hIL-5Ralpha variants in human samples demonstrated an overexpression of both membrane-anchored and soluble encoding variants in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis tissue and peripheral blood in patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis compared to healthy subjects. The implementation of this assay will allow a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the hIL-5Ralpha gene and hence its role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. (+info)
Kinetic interaction analysis of human interleukin 5 receptor alpha mutants reveals a unique binding topology and charge distribution for cytokine recognition.
Human interleukin 5 receptor alpha (IL5Ralpha) comprises three fibronectin type III domains (D1, D2, and D3) in the extracellular region. Previous results have indicated that residues in the D1D2 domains are crucial for high affinity interaction with human interleukin 5 (IL5). Yet, it is the D2D3 domains that have sequence homology with the classic cytokine recognition motif that is generally assumed to be the minimum cytokine-recognizing unit. In the present study, we used kinetic interaction analysis of alanine-scanning mutational variants of IL5Ralpha to define the residues involved in IL5 recognition. Soluble forms of IL5Ralpha variants were expressed in S2 cells, selectively captured via their C-terminal V5 tag by anti-V5 tag antibody immobilized onto the sensor chip and examined for IL5 interaction by using a sandwich surface plasmon resonance biosensor method. Marked effects on the interaction kinetics were observed not only in D1 (Asp(55), Asp(56), and Glu(58)) and D2 (Lys(186) and Arg(188)) domains, but also in the D3 (Arg(297)) domain. Modeling of the tertiary structure of IL5Ralpha indicated that these binding residues fell into two clusters. The first cluster consists of D1 domain residues that form a negatively charged patch, whereas the second cluster consists of residues that form a positively charged patch at the interface of D2 and D3 domains. These results suggest that the IL5 x IL5Ralpha system adopts a unique binding topology, in which the cytokine is recognized by a D2D3 tandem domain combined with a D1 domain, to form an extended cytokine recognition interface. (+info)
Receptor epitope usage by an interleukin-5 mimetic peptide.
The cyclic peptide AF17121 is a library-derived antagonist for human interleukin-5 (IL5) receptor alpha (IL5Ralpha) and inhibits IL5 activity. Our previous results have demonstrated that the sixth arginine residue of the peptide is crucial for the inhibitory effect and that several acidic residues in the N- and C-terminal regions also make a contribution, although to a lesser extent (Ruchala, P., Varadi, G., Ishino, T., Scibek, J., Bhattacharya, M., Urbina, C., Van Ryk, D., Uings, I., and Chaiken, I. (2004) Biopolymers 73, 556-568). However, the recognition mechanism of the receptor has remained unresolved. In this study, AF17121 was fused to thioredoxin by recombinant DNA techniques and examined for IL5Ralpha interaction using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor method. Kinetic analysis revealed that the dissociation rate of the peptide.receptor complex is comparable with that of the cytokine.receptor complex. The fusion peptide competed with IL5 for both biological function and interaction with IL5Ralpha, indicating that the binding sites on the receptor are shared by AF17121 and IL5. To define the epitope residues for AF17121, we defined its binding footprint on IL5Ralpha by alanine substitution of Asp(55), Asp(56), Glu(58), Lys(186), Arg(188), and Arg(297) of the receptor. Marked effects on the interaction were observed in all three fibronectin type III domains of IL5Ralpha, in particular Asp(55), Arg(188), and Arg(297) in the D1, D2, and D3 domains, respectively. This footprint represents a significant subset of that for IL5 binding. The fact that AF17121 mimics the receptor binding capability of IL5 but antagonizes biological function evokes several models for how IL5 induces activation of the multisubunit receptor system. (+info)
Asymmetric usage of antagonist charged residues drives interleukin-5 receptor recruitment but is insufficient for receptor activation.
The cyclic peptide AF17121 (VDECWRIIASHTWFCAEE) is a library-derived antagonist for human Interleukin-5 receptor alpha (IL5Ralpha). We have previously demonstrated that AF17121 mimics Interleukin-5 (IL5) by binding in a region of IL5Ralpha that overlaps the IL5 binding epitope. In the present study, to explore the functional importance of the amino acid residues of AF17121 required for effective binding to, and antagonism of, IL5Ralpha, each charged residue was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis and examined for IL5Ralpha interaction by using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor. One residue, Arg(6), was found to be essential for receptor antagonism; its replacement with either alanine or lysine completely abolished the interaction between AF17121 and IL5Ralpha. Other charged residues play modulatory roles. One class consists of the N-terminal acidic cluster (Asp(2) and Glu(3)) for which alanine replacement decreased the association rate. A second class consists of His(11) and the C-terminal acidic cluster (Glu(17) and Glu(18)) for which alanine replacement increased the dissociation rate. Binding model analysis of the mutants of the latter class of residues indicated the existence of conformational rearrangement during the interaction. On the basis of these results, we propose a model in which Arg(6) and N-terminal acidic residues drive the encounter complex, while Arg(6), His(11), and C-terminal acidic residues are involved in stabilizing the final complex. These data argue that the charged residues of AF17121 are utilized asymmetrically in the pathway of inhibitor-receptor complex formation to deactivate the receptor function. The results also help focus emerging models for the mechanism by which IL5 activates the IL5Ralpha-betac receptor system. (+info)
Systemic eosinophil response induced by respiratory syncytial virus.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in infants. Eosinophils have been suggested to play a role in the disease pathogenesis of LRTD. Inflammation can induce functional and morphological alterations of peripheral blood granulocytes. In patients with RSV LRTD, we aimed to investigate the eosinophil activation status by analysing surface markers. In vitro stimulation of eosinophils with cytokines leads to up-regulation of CD11b and priming markers recognized by the recently developed priming markers A17 and A27, whereas interleukin (IL)-5Ralpha is being down-regulated. In 51 patients and 10 controls we examined the expression of these surface markers on eosinophils in moderate to severe RSV-induced LRTD patients at the time of admission and 6 weeks later during the convalescence phase. RSV-patients were characterized by a higher eosinophil CD11b expression compared to controls. Although basal A17 and A27 expression was not increased, we observed a significantly higher expression of these priming epitopes on N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated cells of RSV patients compared with cells of controls, indicative of prior in vivo priming. Furthermore, IL-5Ralpha expression was down-regulated on peripheral blood eosinophils of these patients. Follow-up blood samples showed normalization of all markers but CD11b, which was persistently increased. Utilizing cellular markers, we observed that peripheral blood eosinophils from infants with RSV LRTD are in a more activated state compared to eosinophils of controls, which normalizes only partially during convalescence. (+info)
Nasal cholera toxin elicits IL-5 and IL-5 receptor alpha-chain expressing B-1a B cells for innate mucosal IgA antibody responses.
In this study, we examine whether native cholera toxin (nCT) as a mucosal adjuvant can support trinitrophenyl (TNP)-LPS-specific mucosal immune responses. C57BL/6 mice were given nasal TNP-LPS in the presence or absence of nCT. Five days later, significantly higher levels of TNP-specific mucosal IgA Ab responses were induced in the nasal washes, saliva, and plasma of mice given nCT plus TNP-LPS than in those given TNP-LPS alone. High numbers of TNP-specific IgA Ab-forming cells were also detected in mucosal tissues such as the nasal passages (NPs), the submandibular glands (SMGs), and nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue of mice given nCT. Flow cytometric analysis showed that higher numbers of surface IgA+, CD5+ B cells (B-1a B cells) in SMGs and NPs of mice given nasal TNP-LPS plus nCT than in those given TNP-LPS alone. Furthermore, increased levels of IL-5R alpha-chain were expressed by B-1a B cells in SMGs and NPs of mice given nasal TNP-LPS plus nCT. Thus, CD4+ T cells from these mucosal effector lymphoid tissues produce high levels of IL-5 at both protein and mRNA levels. When mice were treated with anti-IL-5 mAb, significant reductions in TNP-specific mucosal IgA Ab responses were noted in external secretions. These findings show that nasal nCT as an adjuvant enhances mucosal immune responses to a T cell-independent Ag due to the cross-talk between IL-5Ralpha+ B-1a B cells and IL-5-producing CD4+ T cells in the mucosal effector lymphoid tissues. (+info)
Uterine stretch regulates temporal and spatial expression of fibronectin protein and its alpha 5 integrin receptor in myometrium of unilaterally pregnant rats.
The adaptive growth of the uterus during pregnancy is a critical event that involves increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and dynamic remodeling of smooth muscle cell (SMC)-ECM interactions. We have previously found a dramatic increase in the expression of the mRNAs that encode fibronectin (FN) and its alpha5-integrin receptor (ITGA5) in pregnant rat myometrium near to term. Since the myometrium at term is exposed to considerable mechanical stretching of the uterine wall by the growing fetus(es), the objective of the present study was to examine its role in the regulation of FN and ITGA5 expression at late gestation and during labor. Using myometrial tissues from unilaterally pregnant rats, we investigated the temporal changes in Itga5 gene expression in gravid and empty uterine horns by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, in combination with immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses of the temporal/spatial distributions of the FN and ITGA5 proteins. In addition, we studied the effects of early progesterone (P4) withdrawal on Itga5 mRNA levels and ITGA5 protein detection. At all time-points examined, the Itga5 mRNA levels were increased in the gravid uterine horn, compared to the empty horn (P < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis confirmed higher ITGA5 and FN protein levels in the myometrium, associated with gravidity (P < 0.05). Immunodetection of ITGA5 was consistently high in the longitudinal muscle layer, increased with gestational age in the circular muscle layer of the gravid horn, and remained low in the empty horn. ITGA5 and FN immunostaining in the gravid horn exhibited a continuous layer of variable thickness associated directly with the surfaces of individual SMCs. In contrast to the effects of stretch, P4 does not appear to regulate ITGA5 expression. We speculate that the reinforcement of the FN-ITGA5 interaction: 1) contributes to myometrial hypertrophy and remodeling during late pregnancy; and 2) facilitates force transduction during the contractions of labor by anchoring hypertrophied SMCs to the uterine ECM. (+info)
Oct2 enhances antibody-secreting cell differentiation through regulation of IL-5 receptor alpha chain expression on activated B cells.