Systemic lipopolysaccharide influences rectal sensitivity in rats: role of mast cells, cytokines, and vagus nerve.
Intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces somatic hyperalgesia, releases interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and activates vagal afferents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripheral LPS on rectal sensitivity and to specify the mechanisms involved. Abdominal muscle contractions were recorded in conscious rats equipped with intramuscular electrodes. Rectal distension (RD) was performed at various times after LPS or experimental treatments. In controls, RD significantly increased the number of abdominal contractions from a threshold volume of distension of 0.8 ml. At the lowest volume (0.4 ml), this number was increased after administration of LPS (3, 9, and 12 h later), recombinant human IL-1beta (from 3 to 9 h), recombinant bovine TNF-alpha (from 6 to 9 h), and BrX-537A (from 6 to 12 h), a mast cell degranulator. The effect of LPS was reduced by doxantrazole, Lys-D-Pro-Thr, and soluble recombinant TNF receptor. Vagotomy selectively amplified the response to LPS. We conclude that, in vivo, intraperitoneal LPS lowers visceral pain threshold (allodynia) through a mechanism involving mast cell degranulation and IL-1beta and TNF-alpha release and that the vagus nerve may exert a tonic protective role against LPS-induced rectal allodynia. (+info)
Heterogeneous response patterns of alveolar macrophages from patients with lung cancer by stimulation with interferon-gamma.
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are considered to play an important role in the host defense against malignant tumors. In this study, cytotoxic activity of alveolar macrophages (AM) derived from 32 patients with lung cancer was investigated. METHODS: AM were aseptically obtained by lavage from resected lung and subsequently tested for cytolytic activity against QG56, a lung squamous cell line, following treatment with recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). RESULTS: In seven patients (21.9%), AM showed no cytotoxicity even though AM were incubated with IFN-gamma. In 20 (62.5%), AM showed substantial cytotoxicity in response to IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. In the other five (15.6%), relatively strong cytotoxicity was observed even without preincubation with IFN-gamma. Such a heterogeneous profile of the cytotoxicity of AM might be a reflection of various activated states of AM since the potential of cytotoxicity and that of IL-1 secretion were almost parallel. Both IFN-gamma dependent and -independent cytotoxicity were partially blocked either by anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antibody or by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis. However, those activities were completely abrogated by both treatments. Since the supernatant of AM culture exhibited TNF-alpha-mediated but not NO-mediated cytolysis, TNF-alpha could mediate a bystander killing whereas NO acts in close contact with tumor cells. CONCLUSION: The AM have anti-tumor cytotoxicity in lung cancer although the cytolytic potential is heterogeneous and that the tumor lysis by AM is mediated by both TNF-alpha and NO production. (+info)
Differential effects of oxidised and non-oxidised polyethylene particles on human monocyte/macrophages in vitro.
Sterilisation by gamma irradiation in the presence of air causes free radicals generated in polyethylene (PE) to react with oxygen, which could lead to loss of physical properties and reduction in fatigue strength. Tissue retrieved from failed total hip replacements often has large quantities of particulate PE and most particles associated with peri-implant osteolysis are oxidised. Consequently, an understanding of the cellular responses of oxidised PE particles may lead to clarification of the pathogenesis of osteolysis and aseptic loosening. We have used the agarose system to demonstrate the differential effects of oxidised and non-oxidised PE particles on the release of proinflammatory products such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from monocytes/macrophages (M/M). Oxidised PE particles were shown to stimulate human M/M to phagocytose and to release cytokines. Oxidation may alter the surface chemistry of the particles and enhance the response to specific membrane receptors on macrophages, such as scavenger-type receptors. (+info)
Transcriptional regulation of the human iNOS gene by IL-1beta in endothelial cells.
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelium participates in the control of vascular tone and function via the release of nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelial-type NO synthase (eNOS). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in endothelial cells occurs in many clinical conditions following induction by lipopolysaccharide or cytokines and generates large quantities of NO that result in endothelial cell activation and dysfunction. No information exists on the transcriptional regulation of the human iNOS gene (or that of other species) in endothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the transcriptional regulation of the human iNOS gene by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PVEC) by transient cotransfections of different iNOS-promoter constructs and cDNA of different transcription factors and regulatory proteins. RESULTS: The -1034/+88 bp iNOS promoter was strongly induced by IL-1beta, the regulatory elements for such induction being localized downstream of -205 bp. Cotransfection experiments with NF-kappaB isoforms, IkappaB isoforms, and IKK mutants suggested that the NF-kappaB site at -115/-106 bp is important, but not sufficient, for induction of iNOS promoter and that the role of NF-kappaB is partially independent of its binding site. C/EBP sites within the -205/+88 bp region were shown to be responsible, along with NF-kappaB site, for induction of iNOS promoter by IL-1beta. Overexpression of C/EBPalpha, C/EBPdelta, and liver-enriched activator protein (LAP) activated the promoter, whereas overexpression of liver-enriched inhibitory protein (LIP) strongly suppressed it. C/EBPbeta (LAP and LIP isoforms) was constitutively present in PVEC and was induced (approximately 2-fold) by IL-1beta, whereas C/EBPdelta was not constitutively expressed but was strongly induced by IL-1beta. Both C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta participated in DNA-protein complex formation. CONCLUSION: Both NF-kappaB and C/EBP pathways are important for the transcriptional regulation of the human iNOS gene by IL-1beta in PVEC. (+info)
Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase mediate lipopolysaccharide- and cytokine-induced nitric oxide formation in vascular smooth muscle cells of rats.
Rat aorta media, adventitia and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were used in this study to identify the source of nitric oxide (NO) generation from various cell types of vascular tissues and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in NO formation. Treatment of vascular media and VSMCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta)] resulted in a dose-dependent increase of NO release. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the stimulated VSMCs was significantly upregulated as shown by Western blot analysis. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7) prevented LPS-, TNF-alpha- and IL-1beta-induced NO production, whereas N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (HA1004), an H7 analogue with little activity towards PKC, had no inhibition effect. The role of PKC in LPS- and cytokine-induced changes on NO formation was confirmed by using another structurally distinct PKC inhibitor chelerythrine. Treatment of VSMCs with protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor genistein or tyrphostin AG18 also reduced the NO production evoked by LPS, TNF-alpha or IL-1beta, which was associated with inhibition of iNOS protein expression. In contrast, PKC inhibitor chelerythrine did not affect iNOS expression. These results suggest that PTK mediates LPS- and cytokine-induced NO formation by upregulation of iNOS expression. PKC may be involved in the post-translational modification of iNOS or the regulation of the availability of iNOS substrates and cofactors. (+info)
Effects of GW274150, a novel and selective inhibitor of iNOS activity, in acute lung inflammation.
1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GW274150, a novel, potent and selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in a model of lung injury induced by carrageenan administration in the rats. 2. Injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity of rats elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by: fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity which contained a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) as well as an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and subsequent lipid peroxidation, and increased production of nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). 3. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by GW274150 (2.5, 5 and 10 mg x kg(-1) injected i.p. 5 min before carrageenan). 4. Carrageenan induced an upregulation of the intracellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. 5. The degree of staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine and PAR was reduced by GW274150. These results clearly confirm that NO from iNOS plays a role in the development of the inflammatory response by altering key components of the inflammatory cascade. 6. GW274150 may offer a novel therapeutic approach for the management of various inflammatory diseases where NO and related radicals have been postulated to play a role. (+info)
Anti-inflammatory effect of diosmectite in hapten-induced colitis in the rat.
1. Diosmectite is a natural silicate effectively used in the treatment of infectious diarrhoea. Its antidiarrhoeal properties involve adsorption of toxins and bacteria and modifications of the rheological characteristics of gastrointestinal mucus. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of diosmectite. 2. Diosmectite (500 mg x kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) was administered as a post-treatment to rats with chronic trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis. Colonic status was checked 1 and 2 weeks after colitis induction by macroscopic, histological and biochemical examination. 3. Diosmectite post-treatment resulted in amelioration of the morphological signs (intestinal weight, macroscopic damage, necrosed area, histology) and biochemical markers (myeloperoxidase activity, glutathione levels, MUC2 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and leukotriene B(4) synthesis), as well as in the reduction of the severity of diarrhoea. The effect of the clay was comparable to that of sulphasalazine (50 mg x kg(-1) day(-1)). 4. 5. Diosmectite exhibited a dose-dependent capacity to adsorb proteins in vitro as well as a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the basolateral secretion of IL-8 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT29 cells. Diosmectite had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1beta production by LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. 6. The effect of diosmectite on MUC2 was post-transcriptional, since mRNA levels were unaffected. However, diosmectite is able to upregulate MUC2 mRNA levels in HT29-MTX cells. 7. Diosmectite has anti-inflammatory activity administered as a post-treatment. Possible mechanisms include adsorption of luminal antigens, increase of colonic mucin levels and possibly a direct modulatory action of cytokine production by mucosal cells. (+info)
Prenatal infection and risk for schizophrenia: IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha inhibit cortical neuron dendrite development.
Prenatal exposure to infection increases risk for schizophrenia, and we have hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines, generated in response to maternal infection, alter neuron development and increase risk for schizophrenia. We sought to study the effect of cytokines generated in response to infection-interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-on the dendritic development of cortical neurons. Primary mixed neuronal cultures were obtained from E18 rats and exposed to 0, 100, or 1000 units (U)/ml of IL-1beta, TNFalpha, IL-6, or IL-1beta+TNFalpha for 44 h. MAP-2-positive neurons were randomly identified for each condition and the number of primary dendrites, nodes, and total dendrite length was determined. We found that 100 U of TNFalpha significantly reduced the number of nodes (27%, p=0.02) and total dendritic length (14%, p=0.04), but did not affect overall neuron survival. A measure of 100 U IL-1beta+TNFalpha significantly reduced the number of primary dendrites (17%, p=0.006), nodes (32%, p=0.001), and total dendritic length (30%, p<0.0001), although it did not affect overall neuron survival. At 1000 U, each cytokine significantly reduced the number of primary dendrites (14-24%), nodes (28-37%), as well as total dendritic length (25-30%); neuron survival was reduced by 14-21%. These results indicate that inflammatory cytokines can significantly reduce dendrite development and complexity of developing cortical neurons, consistent with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. These findings also support the hypothesis that cytokines play a key mechanistic role in the link between prenatal exposure to infection and risk for schizophrenia. (+info)