(1/167) Th2-induced airway mucus production is dependent on IL-4Ralpha, but not on eosinophils.
Mucus hyperproduction in asthma results from airway inflammation and contributes to clinical symptoms, airway obstruction, and mortality. In human asthmatics and in animal models, excess mucus production correlates with airway eosinophilia. We previously described a system in which TCR transgenic CD4 Th2 cells generated in vitro were transferred into recipient mice and activated in the respiratory tract with inhaled Ag. Th2 cells stimulated airway eosinophilia and a marked increase in mucus production, while mice that received Th1 cells exhibited airway inflammation without eosinophilia or mucus. Mucus could be induced by IL-4-/- Th2 cells at comparable levels to mucus induced by IL-4+/+ Th2 cells. In the current studies we dissect further the mechanisms of Th2-induced mucus production. When IL-4-/- Th2 cells are transferred into IL-4Ralpha-/- mice, mucus is not induced, and BAL eosinophilia is absent. These data suggest that in the absence of IL-4, IL-13 may be critical for Th2-induced mucus production and eosinophilia. To determine whether eosinophils are important in mucus production, IL-5-/- Th2 cells were transferred into IL-5-/- recipients. Eosinophilia was abolished, yet mucus staining in the epithelium persisted. These studies show definitively that IL-5, eosinophils, or mast cells are not essential, but signaling through IL-4Ralpha is critically important in Th2 cell stimulation of mucus production. (+info)
(2/167) Receptor for interleukin 13 is a marker and therapeutic target for human high-grade gliomas.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an incurable brain tumor. Due to the striking heterogeneity that characterizes GBM, there is no known tumor-specific antigen or receptor that is expressed by a majority of GBM patients. We found that virtually all studied human GBM specimens (23 samples) abundantly expressed a receptor for interleukin (IL)-13 in situ, whereas normal human brain had few, if any, IL-13-binding sites. The GBM-associated IL-13 receptor was both quantitatively and qualitatively different from and, thus, more restrictive than the shared signaling receptor of normal tissue: it was IL-4 independent. The receptor for IL-13 was overexpressed by a majority of cancer cells in situ. Furthermore, cytotoxins targeted to this more restrictive IL-13R produced cures in animals bearing xenografts of human high-grade gliomas. Thus, unexpectedly, the receptor for an immune regulatory cytokine may be a long sought marker and, concomitantly, a unique imaging site and therapeutic target for GBM, the most malignant and the most heterogeneous of brain tumors. (+info)
(3/167) Differences between IL-4- and IL-4 receptor alpha-deficient mice in chronic leishmaniasis reveal a protective role for IL-13 receptor signaling.
IL-4 receptor alpha-chain-deficient (IL-4Ralpha-/-) mice were generated by homologous and site-specific recombination, using the Cre/loxP system in BALB/c-derived embryonic stem cells. In vitro analysis of cells from these mice revealed impaired IL-4- and IL-13-mediated functions, demonstrating that the IL-4Ralpha-chain is an essential component of both the IL-4 and the IL-13 receptor. Whereas Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice developed fatal progressive disease with type 2 Ab responses within 3 mo, both IL-4Ralpha-/- and IL-4-/- BALB/c mice contained infection with reduced footpad swelling, parasite load, moderate histopathology, and type 1 Ab responses during this time period. Conclusively, these results demonstrate an IL-4-dependent mechanism of susceptibility in BALB/c mice. Nevertheless, in contrast to mutant mice, infected C57BL/6 mice healed completely within 3 mo, indicating that additional factors are necessary for subsequent healing and elimination of the pathogen. During the further course of infection, IL-4Ralpha-/- mice developed progressive disease with massive footpad swelling. Lesions became ulcerative and necrotic with subsequent destruction of connective tissue and bones, as well as dissemination into organs and consequent mortality within the monitored 6 mo of chronic infection. In striking contrast, IL-4-/- mice maintained control of infection on a moderate level, but were unable to clear the pathogen. The distinct phenotypes of the BALB/c embryonic stem cell-derived IL-4-/- and IL-4Ralpha-/- mouse strains identify previously unsuspected mechanisms for maintaining host immunity to chronic infection with L. major, mediated by a functional IL-13 receptor. (+info)
(4/167) Kinetic analysis of high affinity forms of interleukin (IL)-13 receptors: suppression of IL-13 binding by IL-2 receptor gamma chain.
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of immune and tumor cells. To understand the mechanisms of interaction between IL-13 and IL-13 receptors (IL-13R), and the role of the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain (gammac) in IL-13 binding and processing, we have examined IL-13 binding kinetics, dissociation/shedding, and internalization in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. We observed a new phenomena in that the apparent rate of association, but not the dissociation, was strongly related to IL-13 concentration. We also observed cooperativity phenomena in IL-13 and IL-13R interaction in control RCC (MLneo) cells, but not in cells transfected with gammac chain (MLgammac). The number of IL-13 binding sites, the effective rate of ligand association, and the dissociation rate constants were reduced in gammac-transfected cells compared to control RCC cells. Two forms of IL-13R were detected in these cell lines, which differed in the kinetics of endocytosis and dissociation/exocytosis. Only a small fraction of bound receptors (14-24%) was rapidly internalized and the same fraction of the ligand-receptor complexes was shed and/or dissociated. The expression of gammac chain did not change any of these processes. A two independent high-affinity and moderate-affinity receptor model fit the kinetic observations in gammac-transfected cells. However, in control cells, the binding kinetics were more complicated. A mathematical model that fit a set of kinetic and steady state data in control cells was selected from a set of possible models. This best-fit model predicts that 1) two different IL-13R are expressed on the cell membrane, 2) a minor fraction of IL-13R exist as microclusters (homodimers and/or heterodimers) without exogenous IL-13, 3) high morphological complexity of the gammac-negative control cell membrane affects the cooperativity phenomena of IL-13 binding, and 4) a large number of co-receptor molecules is present, which helps keep the ligand on the cell surface for a long period of time after fast IL-13 binding and provides a negative control for ligand binding via production of the high affinity inhibitor bound to IL-13. Our data demonstrate that gammac exerts dramatic changes in the kinetic mechanisms of IL-13 binding. (+info)
(5/167) Characterization of the cytoplasmic domain of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha.
Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4 are pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokines that share many overlapping biological properties reflecting the fact that both can utilize a receptor complex composed of the IL-4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Ralpha) chain and the IL-13Ralpha chain. The cytoplasmic domain of the IL-13Ralpha is 60 amino acids long and is essential for IL-13-dependent growth. It contains a Pro-rich domain in the membrane-proximal region and two Tyr residues. Here we show that a truncated IL-13Ralpha, lacking the 38 carboxyl-terminal residues but retaining the Pro-rich region, can support IL-13-dependent proliferation, although with reduced efficiency. A Y402F mutant of the cytoplasmic domain of IL-13Ralpha supported normal IL-13-induced growth. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which we show is induced by IL-13 and IL-4 in cells that express the IL-13Ralpha, was significantly reduced. The cytoplasmic domain of IL-13Ralpha was constitutively associated with STAT3, Tyk2, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). IL-13-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IL-13Ralpha in vivo could not be detected using anti-Tyr(P) antibodies. A glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the cytoplasmic domain of IL-13Ralpha was phosphorylated on tyrosine in vitro by JAK1, JAK3, and Tyk2, although the tyrosine phosphorylation events mediated by Tyk2 and JAK3 were not detectable using anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. These data, together with the demonstration that IL-13Ralpha associates constitutively with Tyk2 and that Tyr-402 is involved in IL-13-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, suggest that the latter is mediated by Tyk2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, which was not necessary for IL-13-induced proliferation, may account for some of the effects of IL-4 and IL-13 on the function of their targets. (+info)
(6/167) A soluble form of IL-13 receptor alpha 1 promotes IgG2a and IgG2b production by murine germinal center B cells.
A functional IL-13R involves at least two cell surface proteins, the IL-13R alpha 1 and IL-4R alpha. Using a soluble form of the murine IL-13R alpha 1 (sIL-13R), we reveal several novel features of this system. The sIL-13R promotes proliferation and augmentation of Ag-specific IgM, IgG2a, and IgG2b production by murine germinal center (GC) B cells in vitro. These effects were enhanced by CD40 signaling and were not inhibited by an anti-IL4R alpha mAb, a result suggesting other ligands. In GC cell cultures, sIL-13R also promoted IL-6 production, and interestingly, sIL-13R-induced IgG2a and IgG2b augmentation was absent in GC cells isolated from IL-6-deficient mice. Furthermore, the effects of the sIL-13R molecule were inhibited in the presence of an anti-IL-13 mAb, and preincubation of GC cells with IL-13 enhanced the sIL-13R-mediated effects. When sIL-13R was injected into mice, it served as an adjuvant-promoting production to varying degrees of IgM and IgG isotypes. We thus propose that IL-13R alpha 1 is a molecule involved in B cell differentiation, using a mechanism that may involve regulation of IL-6-responsive elements. Taken together, our data reveal previously unknown activities as well as suggest that the ligand for the sIL-13R might be a component of the IL-13R complex or a counterstructure yet to be defined. (+info)
(7/167) The human B cell response to IL-13 is dependent on cellular phenotype as well as mode of activation.
Normal mature quiescent human B lymphocytes, isolated as a function of buoyant density, require activation for up-regulation of IL-13R constituents. Cell activation through a combination of surface Ig and CD40 receptor ligation leads to the most substantial message production for IL-13Ralpha1. Functional consequences of this receptor variation, in initially quiescent cells, includes demonstrable effects on cellular proliferation in response to ligand exposure. Variations in the method of surface activation, with particular emphasis on the CD40 receptor, reveals that immobilized CD40 ligand may be sufficient, in and of itself, to up-regulate IL-13Ralpha1, which may bear significance for B-lymphocyte bystander proliferation. Regulation of the IL-13Ralpha1 protein and message also differs as a function of cellular phenotype. Although values are greater in memory than naive B cells, as they are initially isolated from extirpated tonsils, variations in the magnitude of message and protein, as a function of surface stimulation, are more substantial in the naive subset. The magnitude of variation in message production in naive cells is associated with a more vigorous proliferative response to IL-13 than seen in memory lymphocytes. The cellular response to IL-13, as a function of activation and phenotype, is the converse of that demonstrated for IL-2. Evaluation of proliferation, receptor message, ligand binding protein production, and the response to putatively synergistic cytokines reveals that IL-2 is the predominant lymphokine utilized by memory cells. This is in contradistinction to IL-13, which along with IL-4, are the predominant moieties for naive lymphocytes. (+info)
(8/167) Mutants of interleukin 13 with altered reactivity toward interleukin 13 receptors.
Interleukin 13 (IL13) belongs to a family of cytokines whose members exhibit structural homology, despite amino acid sequence dissimilarity. For example, while of limited sequence homology, IL13 and IL4 share a signaling receptor, IL13/4 receptor, on a variety of human normal cells. However, a subclass of IL4-independent IL13 receptors is overexpressed on certain transformed cells, including human malignant gliomas. We introduced mutations into human (h) IL13 to determine the site(s) involved in interaction with the shared receptor and/or the glioma-associated receptor. This analysis identified at least three protein regions that are needed for signaling through the shared receptor. These regions were localized to alpha-helices A, C, and D and were mainly separate from the region(s) needed to interact with the glioma-associated receptor. Glutamic acids at positions 13 and 16 in hIL13 alpha-helix A, arginine and serine at positions 66 and 69 in helix C, and arginine at position 109 in helix D were found to be important in inducing biological signaling since their specific mutation resulted in loss and/or gain of function phenomena. We demonstrate that the molecular requirements of hIL13 to interact with its respective receptors are generally distinct and can be controlled by mutagenesis of the cytokine. (+info)