(1/806) Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers.
Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes. (+info)
(2/806) The histone acetylase PCAF is a phorbol-ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF family that confers enhanced interferon responsiveness.
Transcription factors of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family bind to the type I interferon (IFN)-responsive element (ISRE) and activate transcription from IFN-inducible genes. To identify cofactors that associate with IRF proteins, DNA affinity binding assays were performed with nuclear extracts prepared from tissue culture cells. The results demonstrated that the endogenous IRFs bound to the ISRE are complexed with the histone acetylases, PCAF, GCN5, and p300/CREB binding protein and that histone acetylase activities are accumulated on the IRF-ISRE complexes. By testing recombinant proteins, we show that PCAF directly binds to some but not all members of the IRF family through distinct domains of the two proteins. This interaction was functionally significant, since transfection of PCAF strongly enhanced IRF-1- and IRF-2-dependent promoter activities. Further studies showed that expression of PCAF and other histone acetylases was markedly induced in U937 cells upon phorbol ester treatment, which led to increased recruitment of PCAF to the IRF-ISRE complexes. Coinciding with the induction of histone acetylases, phorbol ester markedly enhanced IFN-alpha-stimulated gene expression in U937 cells. Supporting the role for PCAF in conferring IFN responsiveness, transfection of PCAF into U937 cells led to a large increase in IFN-alpha-inducible promoter activity. These results demonstrate that PCAF is a phorbol ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF proteins which contributes to the establishment of type I IFN responsiveness. (+info)
(3/806) Mutation analysis of the Pip interaction domain reveals critical residues for protein-protein interactions.
The PU.1 interaction partner (Pip) is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family that regulates gene expression through heterodimerization with the ETS transcription factor PU.1. Binding of Pip alone to DNA is weak, and usually it is recruited by phosphorylated PU.1 to form a strong ternary complex with specific DNA sequences. An approach combining sequence homology analysis, secondary structure predictions, and a precise mutational strategy has been used to determine critical residues within the Pip heterodimerization domain that contribute to ternary complex formation. We have delimited the Pip interaction domain to residues 245-422 by using deletion analysis. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved polar amino acids within two predicted alpha-helices contained in this region, and which are highly conserved in the IRF family, confirmed the importance of these residues for Pip-PU.1 interaction with DNA as well as for trans-activation activity. Our results suggest the existence of a functional epitope essential for heterodimerization between Pip and PU.1 and possibly, in general, between interferon regulatory factor family members and their partners. (+info)
(4/806) Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein is constitutively expressed and differentially regulated in the ocular lens.
Interferon signaling is mediated by STATs and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) families of transcription factors. Ten distinct IRFs have been described and most are expressed in a variety of cells except for interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) and lymphoid-specific IRF/Pip that are thought to be exclusively expressed in lymphoid cells. We show here for the first time that ICSBP is constitutively and inducibly expressed in the mouse lens. In contrast to lymphoid cells with exclusive expression of ICSBP in the nucleus, ICSBP is present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the lens cell. However, ICSBP in the nucleus is of lower apparent molecular weight. We further show that the ICSBP promoter is constitutively bound by lens nuclear factors and that its activation requires binding of additional factors including STAT1. Furthermore, transcriptional activation of ICSBP gene by interferon gamma is accompanied by selective nuclear localization of ICSBP in proliferating epithelial cells but not in the nuclei of nondividing cells in the lens fiber compartment. Constitutive and inducible expression of ICSBP in the ocular lens and differential regulation of its subcellular localization in the developing lens suggest that ICSBP may have nonimmunity related functions and that the commonly held view that it is lymphoid-specific be modified. (+info)
(5/806) Interferon-gamma signaling in human retinal pigment epithelial cells mediated by STAT1, ICSBP, and IRF-1 transcription factors.
PURPOSE: Studies have shown that interferon (IFN)-gamma stimulates expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, interleukin (IL)-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and inhibits replication of Toxoplasma gondii in human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms of IFN-gamma action. METHODS: RNA, whole-cell extracts, and nuclear extracts were prepared from HRPE cells cultured in the presence or absence of IFN-gamma. Activation of IFN-gamma-responsive genes was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis, and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: HRPE cells constitutively expressed two members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, IRF-1 and IRF-2. After exposure to IFN-gamma, transcription of IRF-1 and IFN consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP) genes were induced; IRF-2 gene transcription was not upregulated. Activation of IFN-gamma-responsive genes was mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 factor. CONCLUSIONS: This study characterized the IFN-gamma signaling pathway in HRPE cells and identified IRF-1, ICSBP, and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as mediators of IFN-gamma action in these cells. ICSBP is thought to be exclusively used in immunologic responses and has previously been detected only in lymphoid cells. However, the current study shows that ICSBP expression is inducible in HRPE cells, suggesting that it may regulate gene transcription in RPE cells and possibly in other nonimmunologic cell types. (+info)
(6/806) PU.1 and Spi-B are required for normal B cell receptor-mediated signal transduction.
PU.1 and Spi-B have previously been implicated in the regulation of genes encoding B cell receptor (BCR) signaling components. Spi-B-/- B lymphocytes respond poorly to BCR stimulation; PU.1-/- mice, however, lack B cells, precluding an analysis of BCR responses. We now show that PU.1+/- Spi-B-/- B cells exhibit more extensive defects than Spi-B-/- B cells, indicating that both PU.1 and Spi-B are required for normal BCR signaling. Strikingly, BCR cross-linking results in substantially reduced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in mutant B cells. Further analysis shows that Igalpha is phosphorylated and syk is recruited and becomes phosphorylated but that BLNK and PLCgamma phosphorylation are defective in mutant cells. Our data support the existence of a novel component coupling syk to downstream targets. (+info)
(7/806) Regulation of IFN consensus sequence binding protein expression in murine macrophages.
Recent work has demonstrated that the transcription factor, IFN consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP), plays a critical role in the capacity of mice to control infection with Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania major, agents that require highly activated macrophages for their elimination. In this report the regulation of ICSBP mRNA and protein were analyzed in murine macrophages stimulated with LPS and/or IFN-gamma. Like induction of leishmaniacidal activity, LPS and IFN-gamma synergize to induce ICSBP mRNA and protein. Deletion analysis of the ICSBP promoter identified regions that were IFN-gamma responsive, regions that mediate the ability of LPS and IFN-gamma to activate this promoter synergistically, as well as regions that normally repress ICSBP transcription. Finally, exogenous expression of ICSBP, found in previous studies to down-regulate MHC I gene expression, failed to repress basal or IFN-gamma-induced ICSBP transcription. This demonstrates that ICSBP can selectively suppress the expression of IFN-responsive genes. These findings extend in a significant way our understanding of the regulation of ICSBP by LPS and IFN-gamma and provide important clues as to its role in macrophage activation. (+info)
(8/806) Interferon regulatory transcription factors are constitutively expressed and spatially regulated in the mouse lens.
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors involved in regulation of cell growth and immunological responses. Nine IRFs have been described and they are expressed in a variety of cells, except for ICSBP and LSIRF/Pip, which are thought to be expressed exclusively in immune cells. Here, we show that IRF-1, IRF-2, ICSBP, and LSIRF/Pip are constitutively expressed in the mouse lens. These IRFs are present in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei of lens cells. However, the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins exhibit distinct mobilities on SDS/PAGE. We further show that in the developing mouse lens, IRF-1 and IRF-2 are expressed at high levels in differentiated lens fiber cells with very low and barely detectable levels in undifferentiated lens epithelial cells. Although the level of ICSBP expression is very low in the normal mouse lens, in transgenic mice with constitutive expression of interferon gamma in the lens, its level is markedly elevated and ICSBP expression is detected exclusively in the nuclei of undifferentiated lens cells. Taken together, our data suggest that expression of IRF transcription factors is spatially regulated in the lens and that distinct IRFs may contribute to differential gene regulation in the epithelial and fiber compartments of the vertebrate lens. (+info)